Inhibition of Bromodomain and Extraterminal Domain (BET) Proteins by JQ1 Unravels a Novel Epigenetic Modulation to Control Lipid Homeostasis.
JQ1 对溴结构域和外星结构域 (BET) 蛋白的抑制揭示了一种控制脂质稳态的新型表观遗传调节。
- 作者列表："Tonini C","Colardo M","Colella B","Di Bartolomeo S","Berardinelli F","Caretti G","Pallottini V","Segatto M
:The homeostatic control of lipid metabolism is essential for many fundamental physiological processes. A deep understanding of its regulatory mechanisms is pivotal to unravel prospective physiopathological factors and to identify novel molecular targets that could be employed to design promising therapies in the management of lipid disorders. Here, we investigated the role of bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) proteins in the regulation of lipid metabolism. To reach this aim, we used a loss-of-function approach by treating HepG2 cells with JQ1, a powerful and selective BET inhibitor. The main results demonstrated that BET inhibition by JQ1 efficiently decreases intracellular lipid content, determining a significant modulation of proteins involved in lipid biosynthesis, uptake and intracellular trafficking. Importantly, the capability of BET inhibition to slow down cell proliferation is dependent on the modulation of cholesterol metabolism. Taken together, these data highlight a novel epigenetic mechanism involved in the regulation of lipid homeostasis.
: 脂质代谢的稳态控制对许多基本生理过程至关重要。对其调控机制的深入理解对于解开前瞻性的生理病理因素和确定新的分子靶点至关重要，可以用来设计有前途的脂质紊乱治疗。在此，我们研究了溴结构域和外星结构域 (BET) 蛋白在脂质代谢调节中的作用。为了达到这个目的，我们使用了一种功能丧失的方法，用一种强大的选择性 BET 抑制剂 JQ1 处理 HepG2 细胞。主要结果表明，JQ1 的 BET 抑制有效地降低了细胞内脂质含量，决定了参与脂质生物合成、摄取和细胞内运输的蛋白质的显著调节。重要的是，BET 抑制减缓细胞增殖的能力取决于胆固醇代谢的调节。总之，这些数据强调了一种新的表观遗传机制，参与脂质稳态的调节。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Given the importance of habitual dietary protein intake, distribution patterns and dietary sources in the aetiology of age-related declines of muscle mass and function, the present study examined these factors as a function of sex and age in Irish adults aged 18-90 years comprising The National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). METHODS:In total, 1051 (males, n = 523; females, n = 528) undertook a 4-day semi-weighed food diary. Total, body mass relative intake and percentage contribution to total energy intake of dietary protein were determined in addition to protein distribution scores (PDS), as well as the contribution of food groups, animal- and plant-based foods to total protein intake. RESULTS:Total and relative protein intake [mean (SD)] were highest in those aged 18-35 years [96 (3) g day , 1.32 (0.40) g kg day ], with lower protein intakes with increasing age (i.e. in adults aged ≥65 years [82 (22) g, 1.15 (0.34) g kg day , P < 0.001 for both]. Differences in protein intake between age groups were more pronounced in males compared to females. Protein distribution followed a skewed pattern for all age groups [breakfast, 15 (10) g; lunch, 30 (15) g; dinner, 44 (17) g]. Animal-based foods were the dominant protein source within the diet [63% (11%) versus 37% (11%) plant protein, P < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS:Protein intake and the number of meals reaching the purported threshold for maximising post-prandial anabolism were highest in young adults, and lower with increasing age. For main meals, breakfast provided the lowest quantity of protein across all age categories and may represent an opportunity for improving protein distribution, whereas, in older adults, increasing the number of meals reaching the anabolic threshold regardless of distribution pattern may be more appropriate.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) increases risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. Periodic CRF assessment can have an important preventive function. OBJECTIVE:To develop a protocol-free method to estimate CRF in daily life based on heart rate (HR) and body acceleration measurements. METHODS:Acceleration and HR data were collected from 37 subjects (M=49%) while performing a standardized laboratory activity protocol (sitting, walking, running, cycling) and during a 5-days free-living monitoring period. CRF was determined by oxygen uptake (VO2max) during maximal exercise testing. A doubly-labeled water validated equation was used to predict total energy expenditure (TEE) from acceleration data. A fitness index was defined as the ratio between TEE and HR (TEE-pulse). Activity recognition techniques were used to process acceleration features and classify sedentary, ambulatory and other activity types. Regression equations based on TEE-pulse data from each activity type were developed to predict VO2max. RESULTS:TEE-pulse measured within each activity type of the laboratory protocol was highly correlated to VO2max (r from 0.74 to 0.91). Averaging the outcome of each activity-type specific equation based on TEE-pulse from the laboratory data led to accurate estimates of VO2max (RMSE: 300.0 mlO2/min or 10%). The difference between laboratory and free-living determined TEE-pulse was 3.7 ± 11% (r =0.85). The prediction method preserved the prediction accuracy when applied to free-living data (RMSE: 367 mlO2/min or 12%). CONCLUSIONS:Measurements of body acceleration and HR can be used to predict VO2max in daily life. Activity-specific prediction equations are needed to achieve highly accurate estimates of CRF.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Postprandial dyslipidemia is a common feature of insulin resistant states and contributes to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Recently, bile acids have been recognized beyond their emulsification properties as important signaling molecules that promote energy expenditure, improve insulin sensitivity, and lower fasting lipemia. While bile acid receptors have become novel pharmaceutical targets, their effects on postprandial lipid metabolism remain unclear. Here we investigated the potential role of bile acids in regulation of postprandial chylomicron production and triglyceride excursion. Approach and Results: Healthy C57BL/6 mice were given an intraduodenal infusion of taurocholic acid (TA) under fat-loaded conditions and circulating lipids were measured. Targeting of bile acid receptors was achieved with GW4064, a synthetic agonist to the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and with deoxycholic acid (DCA), an activator of the Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5. TA, GW4064, and DCA treatments all lowered postprandial lipemia. FXR agonism also reduced intestinal triglyceride content and activity of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, involved in chylomicron assembly. Importantly, TA effects (but not DCA) were largely lost in FXR knockout mice. These bile acid effects are reminiscent of the anti-diabetic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). While the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 retained its ability to acutely lower postprandial lipemia during bile acid sequestration and FXR deficiency, it did raise hepatic expression of the rate limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. CONCLUSIONS:Bile acid signaling may be an important mechanism of controlling dietary lipid absorption and bile acid receptors may constitute novel targets for the treatment of postprandial dyslipidemia.