Randomised clinical study of the impact of routine preoperative Doppler ultrasound for the outcome of autologous arteriovenous fistulas for haemodialysis.
- 作者列表："Lopes JRA","Marques ALB","Correa JA
BACKGROUND:Arteriovenous fistulas are the gold standard of vascular accesses in haemodialysis; however, they have a considerable primary failure rate. This study evaluated the comparative reliability of routine preoperative Doppler ultrasound with an isolated physical examination of autologous arteriovenous fistulas within the Single Health System of Brazil and analysed the potential clinical benefit, improvement in primary failure rates and its economic impact. METHODS:A non-blind randomised clinical study group of patients undergoing a vessel mapping with preoperative Doppler ultrasound (ultrasound group) and a control group who had undergone only a physical examination (clinical group) before the vascular procedures was performed. The role of the arteriovenous fistula in dialysis and possible alterations was evaluated in both the groups and followed up for 6 months. RESULTS:Of the initial 248 eligible patients, there was a randomisation of 230 patients, 228 of whom were submitted for surgery, 114 in each group. In the clinical group, a significantly higher rate of primary failure was recorded, with 13.6% versus 4.4% in the ultrasound group (p = 0.002). The Kaplan-Meier curve with log-rank analysis showed a significantly higher primary patency in the ultrasound group (p = 0.042). Regarding the cost-effectiveness of the use of Doppler ultrasound, there was no increase in the final cost compared to the physical examination (US$1.28/fistula day × US$1.29/fistula day). CONCLUSION:It was concluded that Doppler ultrasound contributed to the reduction of primary failure, leading to a significantly superior primary patency of arteriovenous fistulas, and no increase in the final cost. This justifies its routine preoperative use in the Single Health System. Registration number RBR-474xhn (http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br).
背景: 动静脉瘘是血液透析中血管通路的金标准; 然而，它们有相当大的原发性失败率。本研究评估了常规术前多普勒超声与巴西单一卫生系统内自体动静脉瘘孤立体检的比较可靠性，并分析了潜在的临床益处、原发性失败率的改善及其经济影响。 方法: 一个非盲随机临床研究组，患者接受术前多普勒超声血管标测 (超声组)，对照组仅接受血管手术前的体格检查 (临床组)。在两组中评估动静脉内瘘在透析中的作用和可能的改变，并随访6个月。 结果: 在最初的248名符合条件的患者中，有230名患者随机分组，其中228人接受手术，每组114人。在临床组中，记录到的原发性失败率显著较高，超声组为13.6% 对4.4% (p = 0.002)。Kaplan-Meier曲线和log-rank分析显示超声组的初级通畅性显著更高 (p = 0.042)。关于使用多普勒超声的成本效益，与体检相比，最终费用没有增加 (1.28美元/瘘管日 × 1.29美元/瘘管日)。 结论: 多普勒超声有助于减少原发性失败，导致动静脉瘘的主要通畅性显著提高，并且不增加最终费用。这证明其在单一卫生系统中的常规术前使用是合理的。注册号RBR-474xhn (http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br)。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.