- 作者列表："Assmann JC","Farthing DE","Saito K","Maglakelidze N","Oliver B","Warrick KA","Sourbier C","Ricketts CJ","Meyer TJ","Pavletic SZ","Linehan WM","Krishna MC","Gress RE","Buxbaum NP
:Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a prominent barrier to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT). Definitive diagnosis of GVHD is invasive, and biopsies of involved tissues pose a high risk of bleeding and infection. T cells are central to GVHD pathogenesis, and our previous studies in a chronic GVHD mouse model showed that alloreactive CD4+ T cells traffic to the target organs ahead of overt symptoms. Because increased glycolysis is an early feature of T-cell activation, we hypothesized that in vivo metabolic imaging of glycolysis would allow noninvasive detection of liver GVHD as activated CD4+ T cells traffic into the organ. Indeed, hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate magnetic resonance imaging detected high rates of conversion of pyruvate to lactate in the liver ahead of animals becoming symptomatic, but not during subsequent overt chronic GVHD. Concomitantly, CD4+ T effector memory cells, the predominant pathogenic CD4+ T-cell subset, were confirmed to be highly glycolytic by transcriptomic, protein, metabolite, and ex vivo metabolic activity analyses. Preliminary data from single-cell sequencing of circulating T cells in patients undergoing AHSCT also suggested that increased glycolysis may be a feature of incipient acute GVHD. Metabolic imaging is being increasingly used in the clinic and may be useful in the post-AHSCT setting for noninvasive early detection of GVHD.
: 移植物抗宿主病 (GVHD) 是异基因造血干细胞移植 (AHSCT) 的主要障碍。GVHD的明确诊断是侵入性的，并且受累组织的活组织检查造成出血和感染的高风险。T细胞是GVHD发病机制的核心，我们以前在慢性GVHD小鼠模型中的研究表明，同种异体反应性CD4 + T细胞在明显症状之前运输到靶器官。因为增加的糖酵解是T细胞活化的早期特征，我们假设糖酵解的体内代谢成像将允许在活化的CD4 + T细胞进入器官时无创检测肝脏GVHD。事实上，超极化13c-丙酮酸磁共振成像在动物出现症状之前检测到肝脏中丙酮酸向乳酸的高转化率，但在随后的明显慢性GVHD期间没有。同时，通过转录组学、蛋白质、代谢物和离体代谢活性分析，证实CD4 + T效应记忆细胞 (主要的致病性CD4 + T细胞亚群) 是高度糖酵解的。来自接受AHSCT的患者循环T细胞的单细胞测序的初步数据也表明，糖酵解增加可能是早期急性GVHD的特征。代谢成像越来越多地用于临床，并且可能在AHSCT后用于无创性早期检测GVHD的环境中有用。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.