Optimizing therapy in the modern age: differences in length of maintenance therapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
- 作者列表："Teachey DT","Hunger SP","Loh ML
:A majority of children and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are cured with contemporary multiagent chemotherapy regimens. The high rate of survival is largely the result of 70 years of randomized clinical trials performed by international cooperative groups. Contemporary ALL therapy usually consists of cycles of multiagent chemotherapy administered over 2 to 3 years that includes central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis, primarily consisting of CNS-penetrating systemic agents and intrathecal therapy. Although the treatment backbones vary among cooperative groups, the same agents are used, and the outcomes are comparable. ALL therapy typically begins with 5 to 9 months of more-intensive chemotherapy followed by a prolonged low-intensity maintenance phase. Historically, a few cooperative groups treated boys with 1 more year of maintenance therapy than girls; however, most groups treated boys and girls with equal therapy lengths. This practice arose because of inferior survival in boys with older less-intensive regimens. The extra year of therapy added significant burden to patients and families and involved short- and long-term risks that were potentially life threatening and debilitating. The Children's Oncology Group recently changed its approach as part of its current generation of trials in B-cell ALL and now treats boys and girls with the same duration of therapy. We discuss the rationale behind this change, review the data and differences in practice across cooperative groups, and provide our perspective regarding the length of maintenance therapy.
: 大多数患有急性淋巴细胞白血病 (ALL) 的儿童和青壮年患者采用当代多药化疗方案治愈。高生存率很大程度上是由国际合作团体进行的70年随机临床试验的结果。当代ALL治疗通常由2至3年施用的多剂化疗周期组成，其包括中枢神经系统 (CNS) 预防，主要由CNS穿透全身性药剂和鞘内治疗组成。虽然治疗骨干在协作组之间有所不同，但使用相同的药剂，并且结果是可比较的。所有治疗通常开始于5至9个月的更密集的化疗，随后是延长的低强度维持期。从历史上看，少数合作团体用比女孩多1年的维持治疗来治疗男孩; 然而，大多数团体用相等的治疗长度来治疗男孩和女孩。这种做法的出现是由于年龄较大的较少强化治疗方案的男孩存活率较低。额外一年的治疗给患者和家庭增加了显著的负担，并涉及潜在威胁生命和使人衰弱的短期和长期风险。儿童肿瘤小组最近改变了其方法，作为其当前代b细胞ALL试验的一部分，现在以相同的治疗时间治疗男孩和女孩。我们讨论了这一变化背后的基本原理，回顾了不同合作群体的数据和实践差异，并提供了我们对维持治疗时间的看法。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.