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When non-Whiteness becomes a condition.


  • 影响因子:7.27
  • DOI:10.1182/blood.2020008600
  • 作者列表:"Merz LE","Achebe M
  • 发表时间:2021-01-07

:The term "benign ethnic neutropenia" describes the phenotype of having an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) <1500 cells/μL with no increased risk of infection. It is most commonly seen in those of African ancestry. In addition, ANC reference ranges from countries in Africa emphasize that ANC levels <1500 cells/μL are common and harmless. The lower ANC levels are driven by the Duffy null [Fy(a-b-)] phenotype, which is protective against malaria and seen in 80% to 100% of those of sub-Saharan African ancestry and <1% of those of European descent. Benign ethnic neutropenia is clinically insignificant, but the average ANC values differ from what are typically seen in those of European descent. Thus, the predominantly White American medical system has described this as a condition. This labeling implicitly indicates that common phenotypes in non-White populations are abnormal or wrong. We believe that it is important to examine and rectify practices in hematology that contribute to systemic racism.


术语 “良性种族性中性粒细胞减少症” 描述了具有绝对嗜中性粒细胞计数 (ANC) <1500个细胞/μ l而没有增加感染风险的表型。它最常见于非洲血统的人。此外,来自非洲国家的ANC参考范围强调ANC水平 <1500个细胞/μ l是常见且无害的。较低的ANC水平是由Duffy null [Fy(a-b-)] 表型驱动的,其对疟疾具有保护性,见于80% 至100% 的撒哈拉以南非洲血统和 <1% 的欧洲血统。良性种族性中性粒细胞减少症在临床上是不显著的,但平均ANC值与欧洲后裔中通常所见的不同。因此,以白人为主的美国医疗系统将此描述为一种状况。该标记隐含地表明非白人群体中的常见表型异常或错误。我们认为,重要的是检查和纠正血液学中导致系统性种族主义的做法。



作者列表:["Juan-Carlos PM","Perla-Lidia PP","Stephanie-Talia MM","Mónica-Griselda AM","Luz-María TE"]

METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.

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作者列表:["Sawada H","Oeda T","Kohsaka M","Tomita S","Umemura A","Park K","Yamamoto K","Kiyohara K"]

METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.

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作者列表:["Louvrier A","Terranova L","Meyer C","Meyer F","Euvrard E","Kroemer M","Rolin G"]

METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.

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