Preventable public health challenge: Rabies suspected exposure and prophylaxis practices in southwestern of Turkey.
- 作者列表："Oztoprak N","Berk H","Kizilates F
BACKGROUND:Rabies is found in many countries of the eastern Mediterranean and is one of the most important zoonotic diseases in the world. The study aims to describe rabies suspected exposures (RSE) and rabies prophylaxis practices in Antalya-Turkey between 2010 and 2013. METHODS:All 2513 RSE cases presenting to a rabies vaccination center in Antalya, southwestern Turkey, were retrospectively investigated. RESULTS:The mean age of the RSE cases was 30.04±19.63 years with male predominance (63.6%). The vast majority was from urban areas (91.7%), and a postexposure rabies vaccination program was applied to 79.7% of participants. Dogs were the primary source of RSE cases (61.2%). The 39.2% of animals were under observation, and 9.53% of them died. Forty-two animals (1.7%) were laboratory confirmed rabid; 61.9% of them were cows. The rabid animal rate in the rural area was significantly higher than the urban area (18.2% versus 0.2%; p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS:This study includes a large number of RSE cases and prophylaxis practices in southwestern Turkey. Most RSE cases had dog or cat contact. As most RSE cases were in urban areas; more focused efforts should be made for elimination and vaccination of feral dog and cat population in Turkey.
背景: 狂犬病在地中海东部的许多国家都有发现，是世界上最重要的人畜共患病之一。该研究旨在描述2010年至2013年期间安塔利亚-土耳其疑似狂犬病暴露 (RSE) 和狂犬病预防实践。 方法: 对土耳其西南部安塔利亚狂犬病疫苗接种中心的所有2513例RSE病例进行回顾性调查。 结果: RSE患者的平均年龄为30.04 ± 19.63岁，男性占63.6%。绝大多数来自城市地区 (91.7%)，暴露后狂犬病疫苗接种计划适用于79.7% 的参与者。犬是RSE病例的主要来源 (61.2%)。39.2% 的动物在观察中，其中9.53% 的动物死亡。42只动物 (1.7%) 是实验室证实的狂犬病; 其中61.9% 是奶牛。农村地区的狂犬病动物发病率显著高于城市地区 (18.2% 比0.2%; p = 0.001)。 结论: 这项研究包括土耳其西南部的大量RSE病例和预防实践。大多数RSE病例有狗或猫接触。由于大多数RSE病例发生在城市地区; 应更加集中努力消除和接种土耳其的野狗和猫种群。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.