5' UTR CGG repeat expansion in GIPC1 is associated with oculopharyngodistal myopathy.
GIPC1中的5 'UTR CGG重复扩增与眼咽部远端肌病相关。
- 作者列表："Xi J","Wang X","Yue D","Dou T","Wu Q","Lu J","Liu Y","Yu W","Qiao K","Lin J","Luo S","Li J","Du A","Dong J","Chen Y","Luo L","Yang J","Niu Z","Liang Z","Zhao C","Lu J","Zhu W","Zhou Y
:Oculopharyngodistal myopathy is a late-onset degenerative muscle disorder characterized by ptosis and weakness of the facial, pharyngeal, and distal limb muscles. A recent report suggested a non-coding trinucleotide repeat expansion in LRP12 to be associated with the disease. Here we report a genetic study in a Chinese cohort of 41 patients with the clinical diagnosis of oculopharyngodistal myopathy (21 cases from seven families and 20 sporadic cases). In a large family with 12 affected individuals, combined haplotype and linkage analysis revealed a maximum two-point logarithm of the odds (LOD) score of 3.3 in chromosomal region chr19p13.11-p13.2 and narrowed the candidate region to an interval of 4.5 Mb. Using a comprehensive strategy combining whole-exome sequencing, long-read sequencing, repeat-primed polymerase chain reaction and GC-rich polymerase chain reaction, we identified an abnormal CGG repeat expansion in the 5' UTR of the GIPC1 gene that co-segregated with disease. Overall, the repeat expansion in GIPC1 was identified in 51.9% independent pedigrees (4/7 families and 10/20 sporadic cases), while the repeat expansion in LRP12 was only identified in one sporadic case (3.7%) in our cohort. The number of CGG repeats was <30 in controls but >60 in affected individuals. There was a slight correlation between repeat size and the age at onset. Both repeat expansion and retraction were observed during transmission but somatic instability was not evident. These results further support that non-coding CGG repeat expansion plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of oculopharyngodistal myopathy.
: 眼咽下肌远端肌病是一种晚发性退行性肌肉疾病，其特征是上睑下垂和面部、咽部和肢体远端肌肉无力。最近的报道表明LRP12中的非编码三核苷酸重复扩增与该疾病相关。在这里，我们报告了一项在41例临床诊断为眼咽下远端肌病的中国队列中的遗传学研究 (来自7个家庭的21例和20例散发性病例)。在一个有12个患病个体的大家族中，结合单倍型和连锁分析，在染色体区域chr19p13.11-p13.2中，赔率 (LOD) 得分的最大两点对数为3.3，并将候选区域缩小到4.5 Mb的区间。采用全外显子组测序、长读测序、重复引物聚合酶链反应和富含GC的聚合酶链反应相结合的综合策略，我们在与疾病共分离的GIPC1基因的5 'UTR中发现了异常的CGG重复扩增。总体而言，在51.9% 个独立家系 (4/7个家庭和10/20例散发病例) 中发现了GIPC1的重复扩增，而在我们的队列中，LRP12的重复扩增仅在1例散发病例 (3.7%) 中发现。CGG重复的数目在对照中 <30，但在受影响的个体中> 60。重复大小与发病年龄之间存在轻微的相关性。在传播期间观察到重复扩增和回缩，但体细胞不稳定性不明显。这些结果进一步支持非编码CGG重复扩增在眼咽部远端肌病的发病机制中起重要作用。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.