The effect of stress fracture occurring within the first 12 months of training on subsequent race performance in Thoroughbreds in Hong Kong.
- 作者列表："Johnston AS","Sidhu ABS","Riggs CM","Verheyen KLP","Rosanowski SM
BACKGROUND:Racehorses are at an increased risk of stress fracture within the first 12 months of racing and when resuming training after a break. Research in these high-risk periods and on the effect of performance post-recovery is limited. OBJECTIVES:To describe the occurrence of stress fractures, diagnosed by nuclear scintigraphy (NS), in racehorses' first 12 months training in Hong Kong, and their impact on racing performance and career length. STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective 1:2 matched case-control study. METHODS:Clinical records of horses with NS-diagnosed stress fractures within 365 days of import between 2006 and 2018 were collated. Cases and controls were matched on import date. Univariable conditional logistic regression compared signallment, pre-fracture training and post-recovery racing performance between cases and matched controls. Shared Frailty Cox regression analysed time from import to fracture and total career length. RESULTS:Eighty-seven horses sustained a NS-diagnosed fracture within their first year in Hong Kong (incidence risk 1.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4%-2.1%; N = 5180]). The humerus (42.0%; 95% CI 31.8%-52.6%; n = 39) and tibia (28.0%; 95% CI 19.1%-38.2%; n = 26) were the most common stress fracture sites. Cases missed a median of 63 days (Interquartile range (IQR) 49-82) of training because of fracture. Within the 12 months following diagnosis, case horses had a median of four (IQR 2-4, P < .0001) fewer race starts and were down HK$ 206 188 (IQR HK$ 0-436 800, P = .007) in race earnings compared to controls. Career length did not significantly differ between cases and controls (median 2 years and 3 months; IQR 15.3-39.1 months; P = .2). MAIN LIMITATIONS:Only stress fractures diagnosed by NS were included, hence, the study is not representative of all stress fractures occurring in racehorses in Hong Kong. CONCLUSIONS:Racehorses sustaining a stress fracture within 1 year of entering Hong Kong lost significant time in training, earnings and race starts. However, overall career length was unaffected.
背景: 赛马在比赛的前12个月内以及休息后恢复训练时，应力性骨折的风险增加。在这些高风险时期以及对恢复后性能的影响的研究是有限的。 目的: 描述在香港赛马的前12个月训练中通过核素显像 (NS) 诊断的应力性骨折的发生，以及它们对赛车表现和职业长度的影响。 研究设计: 回顾性1:2配对病例对照研究。 方法: 整理2006年至365年间输入2018天内NS诊断为应力性骨折的马的临床记录。病例和对照在输入日期匹配。单变量条件logistic回归比较了病例和匹配对照之间的信号、骨折前训练和恢复后赛车表现。共享虚弱Cox回归分析了从输入到骨折的时间和总职业长度。 结果: 87匹马在香港第一年内经历了NS诊断的骨折 (发病率风险1.7% [95% 置信区间 (CI) 1.4%-2.1%; N = 5180])。肱骨 (42.0%; 95% CI 31.8%-52.6%; n = 39) 和胫骨 (28.0%; 95% CI 19.1%-38.2%; n = 26) 是最常见的应力性骨折部位。病例因骨折而错过了63天 (四分位距 (IQR) 49-82) 的训练中位数。在诊断后的12个月内，病例马的比赛起跑中位数为4 (IQR 2-4，P <.0001)，与对照组相比，比赛收入下降了206港元188 (IQR 0-436港元800，P = .007)。病例和对照之间的职业长度没有显著差异 (中位2年和3个月; IQR 15.3-39.1个月; P = .2)。 主要限制: 仅包括NS诊断的应力性骨折，因此，该研究不能代表香港赛马中发生的所有应力性骨折。 结论: 赛马在进入香港后1年内发生应力性骨折，在训练、收入和比赛开始方面损失了大量时间。然而，总体职业长度不受影响。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.