Prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes, parasite control practices and anthelmintic resistance patterns in a working horse population in Egypt.
- 作者列表："Salem SE","Abd El-Ghany AM","Hamad MH","Abdelaal AM","Elsheikh HA","Hamid AA","Saud MA","Daniels SP","Ras R
BACKGROUND:Anthelmintic resistance is commonly reported in horse populations in developed countries, but evidence in some working horse populations is either lacking or inconclusive. OBJECTIVES:To estimate prevalence of GI nematode infections in working horses in Egypt and to evaluate strongyle resistance to ivermectin, doramectin and fenbendazole. STUDY DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. METHODS:Faecal egg count was performed on 644 working horses from 2 provinces in Egypt. A short questionnaire about horse signalment and worming history was completed for each horse. Horses identified with ≥50 strongyle type egg/g (n = 146) underwent faecal egg count reduction testing (FECRT) following treatment with ivermectin (n = 33), doramectin (n = 33) or fenbendazole (n = 30). Risk factors for strongyle (≥200 egg/g) and Parascaris equorum (>0 egg/g) infection were investigated using multivariable logistic regression analyses. RESULTS:The prevalence of low (0-199 epg), medium (200-500 epg) and high (>500 epg) strongyle infection was 88.4%, 5.9% and 5.8%, respectively. P. equorum eggs were detected in 5.1% (n = 33) of horses. Strongyle FECR was 100%, 99.97% and 100% following treatment with ivermectin, doramectin and fenbendazole respectively. Anthelmintic treatment in the 12 months preceding examination was associated with reduced likelihood of strongyle infection (odds ratio [OR] = 0.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.14, 0.47, P < .001). The likelihood of P. equorum infection was significantly associated with horses' age (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.69, 0.90; P < .001). Male horses were more likely to have P. equorum infection (OR = 2.86, 95% CI = 1.37, 5.93, P = .005). MAIN LIMITATIONS:Nonrandomised selection of study areas and larval cultures was unsuccessful for some samples. CONCLUSIONS:There were low prevalence of strongyle and P. equorum infection and no evidence of macrocyclic lactones or benzimidazole resistance in strongyles in the studied working horse population.
背景: 驱虫抗性在发达国家的马种群中普遍报道，但一些工作马种群中的证据缺乏或不确定。 目的: 评估埃及工作马中GI线虫感染的流行情况，并评估对伊维菌素、多拉菌素和芬苯达唑的免疫耐受。 研究设计: 横断面研究。 方法: 对来自埃及2个省的644匹工作马进行粪便卵计数。每匹马都完成了一份关于马信号和驱虫历史的简短问卷。在用伊维菌素 (n = 33) 、多拉菌素 (n = 33) 或芬苯达唑 (n = 30) 处理后，鉴定为 ≥ 50个strongyle型卵/g (n = 146) 的马接受粪便卵计数减少测试 (FECRT)。使用多变量logistic回归分析来调查stronyle (≥ 200 egg/g) 和副猪 (>0 egg/g) 感染的危险因素。 结果: epg低 (0 ~ 199) 、epg中 (200 ~ 500) 、epg高 (>500) 的stronyle感染率分别为88.4% 、5.9% 、5.8%。在5.1% (n = 33) 的马中检测到马卵。用伊维菌素、多拉菌素和芬苯达唑处理后，stronyle FECR分别为100% 、99.97% 和100%。检查前12个月的驱虫治疗与骨关节感染可能性降低相关 (比值比 [OR] = 0.26，95% 置信区间 [CI] = 0.14，0.47，P <.001)。马感染的可能性与马的年龄显著相关 (OR = 0.78，95% CI = 0.69，0.90; P <.001)。雄马更容易发生马P感染 (OR = 2.86，95% CI = 1.37，5.93，P = .005)。 主要限制: 研究区域和幼虫培养的非随机选择对于一些样品是不成功的。 结论: 在所研究的工作马群体中，strongyle和P. equorum感染的流行率较低，并且没有证据表明对大环内酯类或苯并咪唑具有抗性。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.