Emergency Computed Tomography: How Misinterpretations Vary According to the Periods of the Nightshift?
- 作者列表："Platon A","Etienne L","Herpe G","Yan D","Massoutier M","Perneger T","Becker M","Poletti PA
OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the accuracy of initial computed tomography (CT) interpretations made by radiology residents during nightshifts in the emergency department. METHODS:Preliminary CT reports performed by radiology residents during 120 consecutive nightshifts (08:30 pm to 08:30 am) were reviewed, attendings' final interpretation being the reference standard. Nightshifts were divided into four consecutive periods of 3 hours. Major misinterpretations were related to potentially life-threatening conditions if not treated immediately after CT. The rate of misinterpretations was calculated for all CT examinations, separately for nightshift's periods and for residents' training years. RESULTS:Misinterpretations were recorded in 155 (7.4%) of 2102 CT examinations, 0.6% (13/2102) were major. There were 2.2% (4/186) major misinterpretations that occurred during the last period of the nightshift versus 0.4% (9/1916) during the first periods of the night (P < 0.05). Of all misinterpretations, 8.5% (130/1526) were made by third- and fourth-year residents and 4.3% (25/576) by fifth-year residents (P < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS:Major misinterpretations occur at the end of the nightshift, which may be explained by the fatigue effect. The rate of misinterpretations is lower among fifth-year residents, which may be related to their prior experience in reading emergency cases.
目的: 评价放射科住院医师在急诊夜班时进行的初步计算机断层扫描 (CT) 判读的准确性。 方法: 回顾了放射科住院医师在连续120次夜班 (下午08:30至上午08:30) 期间进行的初步CT报告，以注意事项的最终解释作为参考标准。夜班被分为4个连续的3小时。如果CT后不立即治疗，主要的误解与潜在的危及生命的疾病有关。计算所有ct检查的误判率，分别为夜班期和住院医师培训年。 结果: 155例ct检查中7.4% 例 (2102) 出现误诊，0.6% 例 (13/2102) 为主要误诊。有2.2% (4/186) 的主要错误解释发生在夜班的最后一个时期与0.4% (9/1916) 在第一个时期的夜晚 (P <0.05)。在所有误解中，8.5% (130/1526) 是由第三和第四年居民做出的，4.3% (25/576) 是由第五年居民做出的 (P <0.005)。 结论: 主要的误解发生在夜班结束时，这可能是由疲劳效应解释的。第五年居民的误读率较低，这可能与他们以前阅读急诊病例的经验有关。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.