- 作者列表："Kim KP","Choi J","Yoon J","Bruder JM","Shin B","Kim J","Arauzo-Bravo MJ","Han D","Wu G","Han DW","Kim J","Cramer P","Schöler HR
:Identifying molecular and cellular processes that regulate reprogramming competence of transcription factors broadens our understanding of reprogramming mechanisms. In the present study, by a chemical screen targeting major epigenetic pathways in human reprogramming, we discovered that inhibiting specific epigenetic roadblocks including disruptor of telomeric silencing 1-like (DOT1L)-mediated H3K79/K27 methylation, but also other epigenetic pathways, catalyzed by lysine-specific histone demethylase 1A, DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylases, allows induced pluripotent stem cell generation with almost all OCT factors. We found that simultaneous inhibition of these pathways not only dramatically enhances reprogramming competence of most OCT factors, but in fact enables dismantling of species-dependent reprogramming competence of OCT6, NR5A1, NR5A2, TET1 and GATA3. Harnessing these induced permissive epigenetic states, we performed an additional screen with 98 candidate genes. Thereby, we identified 25 transcriptional regulators (OTX2, SIX3, and so on) that can functionally replace OCT4 in inducing pluripotency. Our findings provide a conceptual framework for understanding how transcription factors elicit reprogramming in dependency of the donor cell epigenome that differs across species.
: 识别调节转录因子重编程能力的分子和细胞过程拓宽了我们对重编程机制的理解。在本研究中，通过针对人类重编程中主要表观遗传途径的化学筛选，我们发现抑制特定的表观遗传障碍，包括端粒沉默1样 (DOT1L) 介导的H3K79/K27甲基化的干扰物，以及赖氨酸特异性组蛋白去甲基化酶1A催化的其他表观遗传途径，DNA甲基转移酶和组蛋白脱乙酰酶，允许诱导多能干细胞产生几乎所有的OCT因子。我们发现，同时抑制这些途径不仅显著增强了大多数OCT因子的重编程能力，而且事实上能够消除OCT6、NR5A1、NR5A2、TET1和gata3的物种依赖性重编程能力。利用这些诱导的许可表观遗传状态，我们对98个候选基因进行了额外的筛选。因此，我们鉴定了25种转录调控因子 (OTX2、SIX3等)，它们可以在诱导多能性方面功能性地取代OCT4。我们的发现提供了一个概念框架，用于理解转录因子如何在不同物种之间不同的供体细胞表观基因组的依赖性中引发重编程。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.