- 作者列表："Podracky CJ","An C","DeSousa A","Dorr BM","Walsh DM","Liu DR
:Epitope-specific enzymes are powerful tools for site-specific protein modification but generally require genetic manipulation of the target protein. Here, we describe the laboratory evolution of the bacterial transpeptidase sortase A to recognize the LMVGG sequence in endogenous amyloid-β (Aβ) protein. Using a yeast display selection for covalent bond formation, we evolved a sortase variant that prefers LMVGG substrates from a starting enzyme that prefers LPESG substrates, resulting in a >1,400-fold change in substrate preference. We used this evolved sortase to label endogenous Aβ in human cerebrospinal fluid, enabling the detection of Aβ with sensitivities rivaling those of commercial assays. The evolved sortase can conjugate a hydrophilic peptide to Aβ42, greatly impeding the ability of the resulting protein to aggregate into higher-order structures. These results demonstrate laboratory evolution of epitope-specific enzymes toward endogenous targets as a strategy for site-specific protein modification without target gene manipulation and enable potential future applications of sortase-mediated labeling of Aβ peptides.
: 表位特异性酶是用于位点特异性蛋白质修饰的强大工具，但通常需要靶蛋白的遗传操作。在这里，我们描述了细菌转肽酶sortase A识别内源性淀粉样蛋白-β (A β) 蛋白中LMVGG序列的实验室进化。使用共价键形成的酵母展示选择，我们从优选LPESG底物的起始酶中进化出优选LMVGG底物的分选酶变体，导致底物偏好的> 1,400倍变化。我们使用这种进化的分选酶来标记人脑脊液中的内源性a β，使a β 的检测能够与商业测定的灵敏度相媲美。进化的分选酶可以将亲水性肽与Aβ42缀合，极大地阻碍了所得蛋白质聚集成更高级结构的能力。这些结果证明了表位特异性酶向内源性靶标的实验室进化，作为无需靶基因操作的位点特异性蛋白质修饰的策略，并使分选酶介导的a β 肽标记的潜在未来应用成为可能。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.