Normocalcaemic hyperparathyroidism and primary hyperparathyroidism: least significant change for adjusted serum calcium.
- 作者列表："Schini M","Jacques R","Oakes E","Peel N","Walsh JS","Eastell R
Introduction:The least significant change (LSC) is a term used in individuals in order to evaluate whether one measurement has changed significantly from the previous one. It is widely used when assessing bone mineral density (BMD) scans. To the best of our knowledge, there no such estimate available in the literature for patients with disorders of calcium metabolism. Our aim was to provide an estimate of the least significant change for albumin-adjusted calcium in patients with normocalcaemic hyperparathyroidism (NPHPT) and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Methods:We used the within-subject standard deviatio calculated in a population of NPHPT and PHPT patients and multiplied it by 2.77. Results:The LSC for NPHPT and PHPT were found to be 0.25 and 0.24 mmol/L, respectively (1.00 and 0.96 mg/dL). In clinical practice, the value of 0.25 mmol/L could be used. Discussion:The least significant change given, could be used in two ways in these patients. First, it gives a range to which values are expected. This can provide some reassurance for the patient and the physician in cases of intermittent hypercalcaemia. Moreover, it can be a marker of whether an individual has an actual significant change of his calcium after parathyroid surgery.
简介: 最低显著性变化 (LSC) 是一个用于个体的术语，用于评估一个测量是否与前一个测量有显著变化。它在评估骨矿物质密度 (BMD) 扫描时被广泛使用。据我们所知，对于钙代谢紊乱的患者，文献中没有这样的估计。我们的目的是估计正常钙血症甲状旁腺功能亢进 (NPHPT) 和原发性甲状旁腺功能亢进 (PHPT) 患者中白蛋白调整钙的最低显著性变化。 方法: 我们使用在NPHPT和PHPT患者人群中计算的受试者内标准偏差，并将其乘以2.77。 结果: NPHPT和PHPT的LSC分别为0.25和0.24 mmol/L (1.00和0.96 mg/dL)。在临床实践中，可以使用0.25 mmol/L的值。 讨论: 给出的最不显著的变化，可以在这些患者中以两种方式使用。首先，它给出了一个预期值的范围。这可以在间歇性高钙血症的情况下为患者和医生提供一些保证。此外，它可以是个体在甲状旁腺手术后其钙是否具有实际显著变化的标志物。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.