Exploring the usefulness of medical clowns in elevating satisfaction and reducing aggressive tendencies in pediatric and adult hospital wards.
- 作者列表："Efrat-Triester D","Altman D","Friedmann E","Margalit DL","Teodorescu K
BACKGROUND:Most existing research on medical clowns in health care services has investigated their usefulness mainly among child health consumers. In this research we examined multiple viewpoints of medical staff, clowns, and health consumers aiming to identify the optimal audience (adult or child health consumers) for which medical clowns are most useful. We focused on exploring their usefulness in enhancing health consumers' satisfaction and, in turn, reducing their aggressive tendencies. METHODS:We conducted three studies that examined the placement fit of medical clowns from different points of view: medical staff (Study 1, n = 88), medical clowns (Study 2, n = 20), and health consumers (Study 3, n = 397). The main analyses in Studies 1 and 2 included frequencies and t-tests comparing perceived adult and child satisfaction with clowns' performance. Study 3 used moderated-mediation PROCESS bootstrapping regression analysis to test the indirect effect of negative affectivity on aggressive tendencies via satisfaction. Exposure to the medical clown moderated this relationship differently for different ages. RESULTS:Studies 1 and 2 show that the majority of medical clowns and medical staff report that the current placement of the medical clowns is in pediatric wards; about half (44% of medical staff, 54% of medical clowns) thought that this placement policy should change. In Study 3, data from health consumers in seven different hospital wards showed that clowns are useful in mitigating the effect of negative affectivity on satisfaction, thereby reducing aggressive tendencies among health consumers under the age of 21.6 years. Surprisingly, medical clowns had the opposite effect on most adults: for health consumers who were exposed to the medical clown and were above the age of 21.6 negative affectivity was related to decreased satisfaction, and an increase in aggressive tendencies was observed. DISCUSSION:Medical clowns are most useful in elevating satisfaction and reducing aggressive tendencies of children. Older adults, on the other hand, exhibit lower satisfaction and higher aggressive tendencies following exposure to the performance of medical clowns. CONCLUSION:Medical clowns should be placed primarily in children's wards.
背景: 大多数关于医疗保健服务中的医疗小丑的现有研究已经调查了它们主要在儿童健康消费者中的有用性。在这项研究中，我们检查了医务人员，小丑和健康消费者的多种观点，旨在确定医疗小丑最有用的最佳受众 (成人或儿童健康消费者)。我们专注于探索它们在提高健康消费者满意度方面的有用性，进而降低他们的攻击性倾向。 方法: 我们进行了三项研究，从不同的角度检查了医疗小丑的位置适合性: 医务人员 (研究1，n = 88 88) 、医疗小丑 (研究2，n = 20) 和健康消费者 (研究3，n = 397)。研究1和2中的主要分析包括频率和t检验，比较成人和儿童对小丑表现的感知满意度。研究3使用调节-中介过程自举回归分析来测试消极情感通过满意度对攻击倾向的间接影响。对于不同的年龄，暴露于医学小丑不同地缓和了这种关系。 结果: 研究1和研究2显示，大多数医疗小丑和医务人员报告说，目前医疗小丑的安置是在儿科病房; 大约一半 (44% 的医务人员，54% 的医疗小丑) 认为这种安置政策应该改变。在研究3中，来自七个不同医院病房的健康消费者的数据显示，小丑有助于减轻消极情感对满意度的影响，从而减少21.6岁以下健康消费者的攻击性倾向。令人惊讶的是，医疗小丑对大多数成年人具有相反的效果: 对于接触医疗小丑的健康消费者，并且年龄在21.6岁以上，负面影响与满意度下降有关，并且观察到攻击倾向的增加。 讨论: 医疗小丑在提高满意度和减少儿童的攻击性倾向方面最有用。另一方面，老年人在暴露于医疗小丑的表现后表现出较低的满意度和较高的攻击性倾向。 结论: 医疗小丑应主要安置在儿童病房。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.