- 作者列表："Larson DB","Hwang GL
:OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to test a published hypothetic framework of different referring provider needs for primary care, specialty care, and urgent or emergency care practitioners through questions asked in an annual survey at an academic medical center. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Seven questions regarding provider needs were included in an annual online anonymous survey of referring providers. Multiple-choice response options were provided. Differences in responses between provider types were assessed using the Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS. The survey was sent to 3325 providers, and 514 responses were received (response rate, 15.5%). The analysis included 340 responses: 81 from primary care, 205 from specialty care, and 54 from urgent or emergency care. Results indicated that urgent or emergency care providers need examinations to be performed and interpreted more quickly, specialist providers prefer greater radiologist specialization, urgent or emergency care providers order imaging with greater frequency, primary care and urgent or emergency care providers order a greater breadth of imaging, primary care providers report greater reliance on radiologist interpretations, and all provider types highly value direct interactions with radiologists. All results were statistically significant and matched established hypotheses. CONCLUSION. Our results support the concept that referring providers tend to value different aspects of radiology services differently, according to predictable characteristics. The findings suggest that the concept of value in radiology is highly context-specific and can be evaluated, at least in part, using practice-specific referring provider assessments.
: 客观。本研究的目的是通过学术医疗中心年度调查中提出的问题，测试已发表的不同转诊提供者对初级保健，专科护理和紧急或紧急护理从业者需求的假设框架。材料和方法。关于供应商需求的七个问题被纳入对推荐供应商的年度在线匿名调查。提供了多选应答选项。使用Mann-Whitney U检验评估提供者类型之间的响应差异。结果。向3325个供应商发送了调查，收到了514份回复 (回复率为15.5%)。该分析包括340份回复: 81份来自初级护理，205份来自专科护理，54份来自紧急或紧急护理。结果表明，紧急或紧急护理提供者需要更快速地进行检查和解释，专业提供者更喜欢放射科医生专业化，紧急或紧急护理提供者订购更频繁的成像，初级保健和紧急或紧急护理提供者订购更广泛的成像，初级保健提供者报告更多地依赖放射科医生的解释，并且所有提供者类型都高度重视与放射科医生的直接互动。所有结果均具有统计学显著性，且与已建立的假设相匹配。结论。我们的结果支持这样一种概念，即根据可预测的特征，转诊提供者倾向于以不同的方式重视放射学服务的不同方面。研究结果表明，放射学中的价值概念是高度特定于上下文的，可以使用特定于实践的转诊提供者评估进行评估，至少部分评估。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.