- 作者列表："Soffe BW","Miranda JE","Fang J","Epperson DG","Lara RA","Williamson HL","Lipsky MS
BACKGROUND:The purpose of this descriptive study is to outline the Roseman University of Health Sciences (RUHS) College of Dental Medicines' Patient Assistance Fund development, organization and outcomes. The description and reported results provide insight to others considering similar health professions programs. METHODS:The Patient Assistance Fund (PAF) affords dental students an opportunity to petition for and obtain financial assistance for their most disadvantaged patients. In this study, two sources of data were collected and used with a quantitative analysis for data collected as part of the PAFs operation and a qualitative analysis to evaluate the patient experiences. RESULTS:A total of 16 student advocates, consisting of 6 males and 10 females from the D3 and D4 classes made 26 presentations to the PAF board committee. The combined amount requested from the PAF was $47,428.00 ("Cost of Treatment Plan") representing an average request per patient of $1824.15 (range $324.00 to $4070.00). The approved procedures and treatment plans totaled $21,278.36 ("Cost of Approved Procedures") with an average of $818.40 (range $204.00 to $2434.00) per patient. Patients and students expressed a high degree of satisfaction with the program. CONCLUSIONS:This study provides an overview of the structure, funding sources, expenditures and patient services supported by a dental student managed patient assistance fund. The experiences at RUHS College of Dental Medicine (CODM) suggest that other healthcare professions schools can develop similar type programs that yield benefit both to students and to patients in need.
背景: 本描述性研究的目的是概述罗斯曼健康科学大学 (RUHS) 牙科医学院患者援助基金的发展、组织和结果。描述和报告的结果为考虑类似卫生专业项目的其他人提供了见解。 方法: 患者援助基金 (PAF) 为牙科学生提供了为他们最弱势的患者申请和获得经济援助的机会。在这项研究中，收集了两种数据来源，并对作为PAFs手术一部分收集的数据进行定量分析，对患者体验进行定性分析。 结果: 来自D3和D4班的总共16名学生倡导者，包括6名男性和10名女性，向PAF董事会委员会做了26次报告。向PAF请求的合并金额为47,428.00美元 (“治疗计划费用”)，代表每位患者的平均请求为1824.15美元 (范围为324.00美元至4070.00美元)。批准的程序和治疗计划总计 $21,278.36 (“批准程序的费用”)，平均每个患者 $818.40 (范围 $204.00至 $2434.00)。患者和学生对该计划表示高度满意。 结论: 本研究提供了由牙科学生管理患者援助基金支持的结构，资金来源，支出和患者服务的概述。RUHS牙科医学院 (CODM) 的经验表明，其他医疗保健专业学校可以开发类似类型的项目，对学生和有需要的患者都有好处。
METHODS::The ATP binding-cassette superfamily corresponds the mostly transmembrane transporters family found in humans. These proteins actively transport endogenous and exogenous substrates through biological membranes in body tissues, so they have an important role in the regulation of many physiological functions necessary for human homeostasis, as well as in response regulation to several pharmacological substrates. The development of multidrug resistance has become one of the main troubles in conventional chemotherapy in different illnesses including cancer, being the increased efflux of antineoplastic drugs the main reason for this multidrug resistance, with a key role of the ABC superfamily. Likely, the interindividual variability in the pharmacological response among patients is well known, and may be due to intrinsically factors of the disease, genetic and environmental ones. Thus, the understanding of this variability, especially the genetic variability associated with the efficacy and toxicity of drugs, can provide a safer and more effective pharmacological treatment, so ABC genes are considered as important regulators due to their relationship with the reduction in pharmacological response. In this review, updated information about transporters belonging to this superfamily was collected, the possible role of these transporters in cancer, the role of genetic variability in their genes, as well as some therapeutic tools that have been tried to raise against main transporters associated with chemoresistance in cancer.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Cholinergic neurotransmission regulates neuroinflammation in Parkinson disease (PD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The authors conducted a delayed-start study of donepezil for cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. The study consisted of a 96-week randomized placebo-controlled double-blind phase 1, followed by a 24-week donepezil extension phase 2. The primary outcome measure was a change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at week 120. RESULTS:A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated to the early-start (donepezil-to-donepezil) and delayed-start (placebo-to-donepezil) groups. Mean (SD) of the baseline MMSE was 27.6 (2.0) and 28.0 (2.1), respectively. MMSE change at week 120 was better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group, but the difference was not significant. The MMSE declined in apolipoprotein ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and the factor interaction (intervention × ε4 genotype) was highly significant (P < 0.001). Analyzed with the interaction, the difference was significant (group difference 1.95 [0.33 to 3.57], P = 0.018). The MMSE decline slope in phase 1 was significantly better in the early-start group than in the delayed-start group (P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive function deteriorated in ε4 carriers, but not in non-carriers, and early-start donepezil may postpone cognitive decline in the former.
METHODS::Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells, a lot of teams have expressed an interest in dental pulp regeneration. Many approaches, experimental models and biological explorations have been developed, each including the use of stem cells and scaffolds with the final goal being clinical application in humans. In this review, the authors' objective was to compare the experimental models and strategies used for the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering of dental pulp with stem cells. Electronic queries were conducted on PubMed using the following terms: pulp regeneration, scaffold, stem cells, tissue engineering and biomaterial. The extracted data included the following information: the strategy envisaged, the type of stem cells, the experimental models, the exploration or analysis methods, the cytotoxicity or viability or proliferation cellular tests, the tests of scaffold antibacterial properties and take into account the vascularization of the regenerated dental pulp. From the 71 selected articles, 59% focused on the "cell-transplantation" strategy, 82% used in vitro experimentation, 58% in vivo animal models and only one described an in vivo in situ human clinical study. 87% used dental pulp stem cells. A majority of the studies reported histology (75%) and immunohistochemistry explorations (66%). 73% mentioned the use of cytotoxicity, proliferation or viability tests. 48% took vascularization into account but only 6% studied the antibacterial properties of the scaffolds. This article gives an overview of the methods used to regenerate dental pulp from stem cells and should help researchers create the best development strategies for research in this field.