Smaller anterior subgenual cingulate volume mediates the effect of girls' early sexual maturation on negative psychobehavioral outcome.
- 作者列表："Okada N","Yahata N","Koshiyama D","Morita K","Sawada K","Kanata S","Fujikawa S","Sugimoto N","Toriyama R","Masaoka M","Koike S","Araki T","Kano Y","Endo K","Yamasaki S","Ando S","Nishida A","Hiraiwa-Hasegawa M","Kasai K
:Early-maturing girls are relatively likely to experience compromised psychobehavioral outcomes. Some studies have explored the association between puberty and brain morphology in adolescents, while the results were non-specific for females or the method was a region-of-interest analysis. To our knowledge, no large-scale study has comprehensively explored the effects of pubertal timing on whole-brain volumetric development or the neuroanatomical substrates of the association in girls between pubertal timing and psychobehavioral outcomes. We collected structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of a subsample (N = 203, mean age 11.6 years) from a large-scale population-based birth cohort. Tanner stage, a scale of physical maturation in adolescents, was rated almost simultaneously with MRI scan. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire total difficulties (SDQ-TD) scores were rated by primary parents some duration after MRI scan (mean age 12.1 years). In each sex group, we examined brain regions associated with Tanner stage using whole-brain analysis controlling for chronological age, followed by an exploration of brain regions also associated with the SDQ-TD scores. We also performed mediation analyses. In girls, Tanner stage was significantly negatively correlated with gray matter volumes (GMVs) in the anterior/middle cingulate cortex (ACC/MCC), of which the subgenual ACC (sgACC) showed a negative correlation between GMVs and SDQ-TD scores. Smaller GMVs in the sgACC mediated the association between higher Tanner stages and higher SDQ-TD scores. We found no significant results in boys. Our results from a minimally biased, large-scale sample provide new insights into neuroanatomical correlates of the effect of pubertal timing on developmental psychological difficulties emerging in adolescence.
: 早熟女孩相对容易经历受损的心理行为结果。一些研究探讨了青春期和青少年大脑形态之间的关联，而结果对女性是非特异性的，或者该方法是感兴趣区域分析。据我们所知，没有大规模的研究全面探索青春期时机对全脑容量发育的影响或青春期时机与心理行为结果之间关系的神经解剖学底物。我们收集了来自大规模基于人群的出生队列的子样本 (N = 203，平均年龄 11.6 岁) 的结构磁共振成像 (MRI) 数据。Tanner 分期是青少年身体成熟的量表，几乎与 MRI 扫描同时评分。优势和困难问卷总困难 (SDQ-TD) 评分由主要父母在 MRI 扫描后的某个持续时间 (平均年龄 12.1 岁) 进行评级。在每个性别组中，我们使用控制实足年龄的全脑分析检查了与 Tanner 分期相关的脑区，随后探索了与 SDQ-TD 评分相关的脑区。我们还进行了调解分析。在女孩中，Tanner 分期与前/中扣带回皮质 (ACC/MCC) 的灰质体积 (GMVs) 呈显著负相关，其中下根节 ACC (sgACC) GMVs 与 SDQ-TD 评分呈负相关。SgACC 中较小的 gmv 介导了较高的 Tanner 分期和较高的 SDQ-TD 评分之间的关联。我们在男孩中没有发现显著的结果。我们的结果来自一个最小偏倚、大规模的样本，为青春期时机对青春期出现的发育心理困难的影响的神经解剖学相关性提供了新的见解。
METHODS::In recent years, transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has been used to improve cognitive and perceptual abilities and to boost learning. In the visual domain, transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), a type of tES in which electric current is randomly alternating in between two electrodes at high frequency, has shown potential in inducing long lasting perceptual improvements when coupled with tasks such as contrast detection. However, its cortical mechanisms and online effects have not been fully understood yet, and it is still unclear whether these long-term improvements are due to early-stage perceptual enhancements of contrast sensitivity or later stage mechanisms such as learning consolidation. Here we tested tRNS effects on multiple spatial frequencies and orientation, showing that tRNS enhances detection of a low contrast Gabor, but only for oblique orientation and high spatial frequency (12 cycles per degree of visual angle). No improvement was observed for low contrast and vertical stimuli. These results indicate that tRNS can enhance contrast sensitivity already after one training session, however this early onset is dependent on characteristics of the stimulus such as spatial frequency and orientation. In particular, the shallow depth of tRNS is likely to affect superficial layers of the visual cortex where neurons have higher preferred spatial frequencies than cells in further layers, while the lack of effect on vertical stimuli might reflect the optimization of the visual system to see cardinally oriented low contrast stimuli, leaving little room for short-term improvement. Taken together, these results suggest that online tRNS effects on visual perception are the result of a complex interaction between stimulus intensity and cortical anatomy, consistent with previous literature on brain stimulation.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:There is growing interest in treating diseases by electrical stimulation and block of peripheral autonomic nerves, but a paucity of studies on excitation and block of small diameter autonomic axons. We conducted in vivo quantification of the strength-duration properties, activity-dependent slowing (ADS), and responses to kilohertz frequency (KHF) signals for the rat vagus nerve (VN). APPROACH:We conducted acute in vivo experiments in urethane-anesthetised rats. We placed two cuff electrodes on the left cervical VN and one cuff electrode on the anterior subdiaphragmatic VN. The rostral cervical cuff was used to deliver pulses to quantify recruitment and ADS. The caudal cervical cuff was used to deliver KHF signals. The subdiaphragmatic cuff was used to record compound action potentials (CAPs). MAIN RESULTS:We quantified the input-output recruitment and strength-duration curves. Fits to the data using standard strength-duration equations were qualitatively similar, but the resulting chronaxie and rheobase estimates varied substantially. We measured larger thresholds for the slowest fibres (0.5 to 1 m/s), especially at shorter pulse widths. Using a novel cross-correlation CAP-based analysis, we measured ADS of ~2.3% after 3 min of 2 Hz stimulation, which is comparable to ADS reported for sympathetic efferents in somatic nerves, but much smaller than ADS in cutaneous nociceptors. We found greater ADS with higher stimulation frequency and non-monotonic changes in CV in select cases. We found monotonically increasing block thresholds across frequencies from 10 to 80 kHz for both fast and slow fibres. Further, following 25 s of KHF signal, neural conduction could require tens of seconds to recover. SIGNIFICANCE:The quantification of mammalian autonomic nerve responses to conventional and KHF signals provides essential information for development of peripheral nerve stimulation therapies and for understanding their mechanisms of action.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Early accounts of forced thought were reported at the onset of a focal seizure, and characterized as vague, repetitive, and involuntary intellectual auras distinct from perceptual or psychic hallucinations or illusions. Here, we examine the neural underpinnings involved in conceptual thought by presenting a series of 3 patients with epilepsy reporting intrusive thoughts during electrical stimulation of the left lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) during invasive surgical evaluation. We illustrate the widespread networks involved through two independent brain imaging modalities: resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (rs-fMRI) and task-based meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM). METHODS:We report the clinical and stimulation characteristics of three patients with left hemispheric language dominance who demonstrate forced thought with functional mapping. To examine the brain networks underlying this phenomenon, we used the regions of interest (ROI) centered at the active electrode pairs. We modeled functional networks using two approaches: (1) rs-fMRI functional connectivity analysis, representing 81 healthy controls and (2) meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM), representing 8260 healthy subjects. We also determined the overlapping regions between these three subjects' rs-fMRI and MACM networks through a conjunction analysis. RESULTS:We identified that left PFC was associated with a large-scale functional network including frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, a network that has been associated with multiple cognitive functions including semantics, speech, attention, working memory, and explicit memory. CONCLUSIONS:We illustrate the neural networks involved in conceptual thought through a unique patient population and argue that PFC supports this function through activation of a widespread network.