Impact of Positive Margins and Radiation After Tracheal Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Resection on Survival.
- 作者列表："Yang CJ","Shah SA","Ramakrishnan D","Raman V","Diao K","Wang H","Commander SJ","D'Amico TA","Berry MF
BACKGROUND:Achieving negative margins for adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the trachea can be technically difficult. This study evaluated the impact of positive margins on prognosis and tested the hypothesis that radiation improves survival in the setting of incomplete resection. METHODS:The impact of margin status and adjuvant therapy on overall survival of patients with tracheal ACC in the National Cancer Database (1998 to 2014) who underwent resection with known margin status and with no documented nodal or distant disease was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard analysis. RESULTS:Of 132 patients who met study criteria, 79 (59.8%) had positive margins after resection. Adjuvant radiation was given to 95 patients overall (72.0%) and to 62 of the 79 patients with positive margins (78.5%). The survival of patients with positive margins was not significantly different from that of patients with negative margins (5-year survival, 82.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 71.3-89.3] compared with 82.0% [95% CI, 67.0-90.6], P = .97), even after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio, 1.73; 95% CI, 0.62-4.84; P = .30). In the subset of patients with positive margins, there was no significant difference in survival between patients who did or did not receive postoperative radiation therapy (5-year survival, 82.0% [95% CI, 68.8-89.9] compared with 82.4% [95% CI, 54.7-93.9]; P = .80), even after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.21-5.25; P = .96). CONCLUSIONS:The majority of tracheal ACC resections performed in this national cohort had positive margins. Adjuvant radiation was commonly used for positive margins but was not associated with an overall survival benefit.
背景: 实现气管腺样囊性癌 (ACC) 的阴性切缘可能是技术上的困难。本研究评估了阳性切缘对预后的影响，并检验了放疗在不完全切除的情况下提高生存率的假设。 方法: 国家癌症数据库 (1998 2014年) 中边缘状态和辅助治疗对气管 ACC 患者总生存期的影响使用 Kaplan-Meier 和 Cox 比例风险分析评估在已知切缘状态下接受切除且无淋巴结或远处疾病记录的患者。 结果: 在符合研究标准的 132 例患者中，79 例 (59.8%) 切除后切缘阳性。对 95 例患者 (72.0%) 和 79 例切缘阳性患者中的 62 例 (78.5%) 进行辅助放疗。切缘阳性患者的生存率与切缘阴性患者无显著差异 (5 年生存率，82.2% [95% 置信区间 (CI), 71.3-89.3] 与 82.0% [95% CI，67.0-90.6] 相比，P = .97)，即使在多变量调整后 (风险比，1.73; 95% CI，0.62-4.84;P = .30)。在切缘阳性的患者亚组中，接受或未接受术后放射治疗的患者之间的生存率无显著差异 (5 年生存率，82.0% [95% CI, 68.8-89.9] 与 82.4% [95% CI，54.7-93.9] 相比; P = .80)，即使经过多变量调整 (风险比,1.04; 95% CI，0.21-5.25; P = .96)。 结论: 在这个国家队列中进行的大多数气管 ACC 切除术切缘阳性。辅助放疗常用于阳性边缘，但与总生存获益无关。
METHODS:Background Dye localization is a useful method for the resection of unidentifiable small pulmonary lesions. This study compares the transbronchial route with augmented fluoroscopic bronchoscopy (AFB) and conventional transthoracic CT-guided methods for preoperative dye localization in thoracoscopic surgery. Methods Between April 2015 and March 2019, a total of 231 patients with small pulmonary lesions who received preoperative dye localization via AFB or percutaneous CT-guided technique were enrolled in the study. A propensity-matched analysis, incorporating preoperative variables, was used to compare localization and surgical outcomes between the two groups. Results After matching, a total of 90 patients in the AFB group ( N = 30) and CT-guided group ( N = 60) were selected for analysis. No significant difference was noted in the demographic data between both the groups. Dye localization was successfully performed in 29 patients (96.7%) and 57 patients (95%) with AFB and CT-guided method, respectively. The localization duration (24.1 ± 8.3 vs. 21.4 ± 12.5 min, p = 0.297) and equivalent dose of radiation exposure (3.1 ± 1.5 vs. 2.5 ± 2.0 mSv, p = 0.130) were comparable in both the groups. No major procedure-related complications occurred in either group; however, a higher rate of pneumothorax (0 vs. 16.7%, p = 0.029) and focal intrapulmonary hemorrhage (3.3 vs. 26.7%, p = 0.008) was noted in the CT-guided group. Conclusion AFB dye marking is an effective alternative for the preoperative localization of small pulmonary lesions, with a lower risk of procedure-related complications than the conventional CT-guided method.
METHODS:Background The use of artificial intelligence, including machine learning, is increasing in medicine. Use of machine learning is rising in the prediction of patient outcomes. Machine learning may also be able to enhance and augment anesthesia clinical procedures such as airway management. In this study, we sought to develop a machine learning algorithm that could classify vocal cords and tracheal airway anatomy real-time during video laryngoscopy or bronchoscopy as well as compare the performance of three novel convolutional networks for detecting vocal cords and tracheal rings. Methods Following institutional approval, a clinical dataset of 775 video laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy videos was used. The dataset was divided into two categories for use for training and testing. We used three convolutional neural networks (CNNs): ResNet, Inception and MobileNet. Backpropagation and a mean squared error loss function were used to assess accuracy as well as minimize bias and variance. Following training, we assessed transferability using the generalization error of the CNN, sensitivity and specificity, average confidence error, outliers, overall confidence percentage, and frames per second for live video feeds. After the training was complete, 22 models using 0 to 25,000 steps were generated and compared. Results The overall confidence of classification for the vocal cords and tracheal rings for ResNet, Inception and MobileNet CNNs were as follows: 0.84, 0.78, and 0.64 for vocal cords, respectively, and 0.69, 0.72, 0.54 for tracheal rings, respectively. Transfer learning following additional training resulted in improved accuracy of ResNet and Inception for identifying the vocal cords (with a confidence of 0.96 and 0.93 respectively). The two best performing CNNs, ResNet and Inception, achieved a specificity of 0.985 and 0.971, respectively, and a sensitivity of 0.865 and 0.892, respectively. Inception was able to process the live video feeds at 10 FPS while ResNet processed at 5 FPS. Both were able to pass a feasibility test of identifying vocal cords and tracheal rings in a video feed. Conclusions We report the development and evaluation of a CNN that can identify and classify airway anatomy in real time. This neural network demonstrates high performance. The availability of artificial intelligence may improve airway management and bronchoscopy by helping to identify key anatomy real time. Thus, potentially improving performance and outcomes during these procedures. Further, this technology may theoretically be extended to the settings of airway pathology or airway management in the hands of experienced providers. The researchers in this study are exploring the performance of this neural network in clinical trials.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The optimal mode of delivering topical anesthesia during flexible bronchoscopy remains unknown. This article compares the efficacy and safety of nebulized lignocaine, lignocaine oropharyngeal spray, or their combination. METHODS:Consecutive subjects were randomized 1:1:1 to receive nebulized lignocaine (2.5 mL of 4% solution, group A), oropharyngeal spray (10 actuations of 10% lignocaine, group B), or nebulization (2.5 mL, 4% lignocaine) and two actuations of 10% lignocaine spray (group C). The primary outcome was the subject-rated severity of cough according to a visual analog scale. The secondary outcomes included bronchoscopist-rated severity of cough and overall procedural satisfaction on a visual analog scale, total lignocaine dose, subject's willingness to undergo a repeat procedure, adverse reactions to lignocaine, and others. RESULTS:A total of 1,050 subjects (median age, 51 years; 64.8% men) were included. The median (interquartile range) score for subject-rated cough severity was significantly lower in group B compared to group C or group A (4 [1-10] vs 11 [4-24] vs 13 [5-30], respectively; P < .001). The bronchoscopist-rated severity of cough was also the least (P < .001), and the overall satisfaction was highest in group B (P < .001). The cumulative lignocaine dose administered was the least in group B (P < .001). A significantly higher proportion of subjects (P < .001) were willing to undergo a repeat bronchoscopy in group B (73.7%) than in groups A (49.1%) and C (59.4%). No lignocaine-related adverse events were observed. CONCLUSIONS:Ten actuations of 10% lignocaine oropharyngeal spray were superior to nebulized lignocaine or their combination for topical anesthesia during diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy. TRIAL REGISTRY:ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT03109392; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.