Energy Intake, Macronutrient Profile and Food Sources of Spanish Children Aged One to <10 Years—Results from the EsNuPI Study ††
1 至 <10 岁西班牙儿童的能量摄入、宏量营养素特征和食物来源-来自 EsNuPI 研究的结果 †
- 作者列表："Casandra Madrigal","María José Soto-Méndez","Ángela Hernández-Ruiz","Teresa Valero","José Manuel Ávila","Emma Ruiz","Federico Lara Villoslada","Rosaura Leis","Emilio Martínez de Victoria","José Manuel Moreno","Rosa M. Ortega","María Dolores Ruiz-López","Gregorio Varela-Moreiras","Ángel Gil
The present study aimed to assess energy intake, nutrient profile and food sources in Spanish children participating in the EsNuPI (“Estudio Nutricional en Población Infantil Española”) study. Plausibility of energy intake and adequacy of nutrient intakes to international recommendations were analyzed in a final sample of 1448 subjects (728 boys and 720 girls) and one group representative of the 1 to <10 years old urban Spanish children (reference sample (n = 707)) who consumed milk and one of the same age who consumed adapted milk over the last year (adapted milk consumers sample (n = 741)) were compared. Both groups completed data of a face-to-face and a telephone 24-h dietary recalls. Both the reference and the adapted milk consumers samples reported an adequate daily energy intake (1503 kcal/day and 1404 kcal/day); and a high contribution to total energy from protein (16.5% and 15.6%) and fat (36.5% and 35.9%). Also, a high percentage of children from both samples were below the lower limit of the recommendations for carbohydrates (47.8% and 39.3%). As the percentage of plausible energy reporters was high for both groups (84.7% and 83.5%, respectively), data for the whole sample were analyzed. Milk and dairy, cereals, meat and derived products, fats and oils, bakery and pastry, fruits and vegetables contributed to about 80% of the total energy intake in both groups. However, the reference sample reported significantly more contribution to energy from cereals, meat and meat products, bakery and pastry and ready to cook/eat foods; meanwhile, the adapted milk consumers sample reported significantly more energy from milk and dairy products, fruits and eggs. Those results suggest that adapted milk consumers have better adherence to the food-based dietary guidelines. Further analyses are warranted to characterize food patterns and the quality of the diet in the EsNuPI study population.
本研究旨在评估参加 EsNuPI (“Estudio Nutricional en poblaci ó n arine espa ñ ola”) 研究的西班牙儿童的能量摄入、营养状况和食物来源。在 1448 名受试者 (728 名男孩和 720 名女孩) 的最终样本中，分析了能量摄入的合理性和营养素摄入对国际推荐的充分性 1 至 <10 岁西班牙城市儿童的一组代表 (参考样本 (n = 707))比较了过去一年谁食用牛奶和同龄谁食用适应牛奶 (适应牛奶消费者样本 (n = 741))。两组都完成了面对面和电话 24 h 饮食回忆的数据。参考和适应牛奶消费者样本均报告每日能量摄入充足 (1503 kcal/天和 1404 kcal/天); 和高贡献的总能量从蛋白质 (16.5% 和 15.6%) 和脂肪 (36.5% 和 35.9%)。此外，两个样本的儿童百分比均低于碳水化合物建议的下限 (47.8% 和 39.3%)。由于两组似是而非的能量报告器百分比均较高 (分别为 84.7% 和 83.5%)，因此分析了整个样本的数据。牛奶和奶制品、谷物、肉类和衍生产品、脂肪和油、面包店和糕点、水果和蔬菜占两组总能量摄入的 80%。然而，参考样本报告了来自谷物，肉类和肉制品，面包店和糕点以及准备烹饪/食用食物的能量显着更多的贡献; 同时,适应性牛奶消费者样本报告了来自牛奶和乳制品、水果和鸡蛋的显著更多的能量。这些结果表明，适应牛奶的消费者更好地遵守以食物为基础的饮食指南。需要进一步的分析来表征 EsNuPI 研究人群的食物模式和饮食质量。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Given the importance of habitual dietary protein intake, distribution patterns and dietary sources in the aetiology of age-related declines of muscle mass and function, the present study examined these factors as a function of sex and age in Irish adults aged 18-90 years comprising The National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). METHODS:In total, 1051 (males, n = 523; females, n = 528) undertook a 4-day semi-weighed food diary. Total, body mass relative intake and percentage contribution to total energy intake of dietary protein were determined in addition to protein distribution scores (PDS), as well as the contribution of food groups, animal- and plant-based foods to total protein intake. RESULTS:Total and relative protein intake [mean (SD)] were highest in those aged 18-35 years [96 (3) g day , 1.32 (0.40) g kg day ], with lower protein intakes with increasing age (i.e. in adults aged ≥65 years [82 (22) g, 1.15 (0.34) g kg day , P < 0.001 for both]. Differences in protein intake between age groups were more pronounced in males compared to females. Protein distribution followed a skewed pattern for all age groups [breakfast, 15 (10) g; lunch, 30 (15) g; dinner, 44 (17) g]. Animal-based foods were the dominant protein source within the diet [63% (11%) versus 37% (11%) plant protein, P < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS:Protein intake and the number of meals reaching the purported threshold for maximising post-prandial anabolism were highest in young adults, and lower with increasing age. For main meals, breakfast provided the lowest quantity of protein across all age categories and may represent an opportunity for improving protein distribution, whereas, in older adults, increasing the number of meals reaching the anabolic threshold regardless of distribution pattern may be more appropriate.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) increases risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. Periodic CRF assessment can have an important preventive function. OBJECTIVE:To develop a protocol-free method to estimate CRF in daily life based on heart rate (HR) and body acceleration measurements. METHODS:Acceleration and HR data were collected from 37 subjects (M=49%) while performing a standardized laboratory activity protocol (sitting, walking, running, cycling) and during a 5-days free-living monitoring period. CRF was determined by oxygen uptake (VO2max) during maximal exercise testing. A doubly-labeled water validated equation was used to predict total energy expenditure (TEE) from acceleration data. A fitness index was defined as the ratio between TEE and HR (TEE-pulse). Activity recognition techniques were used to process acceleration features and classify sedentary, ambulatory and other activity types. Regression equations based on TEE-pulse data from each activity type were developed to predict VO2max. RESULTS:TEE-pulse measured within each activity type of the laboratory protocol was highly correlated to VO2max (r from 0.74 to 0.91). Averaging the outcome of each activity-type specific equation based on TEE-pulse from the laboratory data led to accurate estimates of VO2max (RMSE: 300.0 mlO2/min or 10%). The difference between laboratory and free-living determined TEE-pulse was 3.7 ± 11% (r =0.85). The prediction method preserved the prediction accuracy when applied to free-living data (RMSE: 367 mlO2/min or 12%). CONCLUSIONS:Measurements of body acceleration and HR can be used to predict VO2max in daily life. Activity-specific prediction equations are needed to achieve highly accurate estimates of CRF.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Postprandial dyslipidemia is a common feature of insulin resistant states and contributes to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Recently, bile acids have been recognized beyond their emulsification properties as important signaling molecules that promote energy expenditure, improve insulin sensitivity, and lower fasting lipemia. While bile acid receptors have become novel pharmaceutical targets, their effects on postprandial lipid metabolism remain unclear. Here we investigated the potential role of bile acids in regulation of postprandial chylomicron production and triglyceride excursion. Approach and Results: Healthy C57BL/6 mice were given an intraduodenal infusion of taurocholic acid (TA) under fat-loaded conditions and circulating lipids were measured. Targeting of bile acid receptors was achieved with GW4064, a synthetic agonist to the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and with deoxycholic acid (DCA), an activator of the Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5. TA, GW4064, and DCA treatments all lowered postprandial lipemia. FXR agonism also reduced intestinal triglyceride content and activity of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, involved in chylomicron assembly. Importantly, TA effects (but not DCA) were largely lost in FXR knockout mice. These bile acid effects are reminiscent of the anti-diabetic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). While the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 retained its ability to acutely lower postprandial lipemia during bile acid sequestration and FXR deficiency, it did raise hepatic expression of the rate limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. CONCLUSIONS:Bile acid signaling may be an important mechanism of controlling dietary lipid absorption and bile acid receptors may constitute novel targets for the treatment of postprandial dyslipidemia.