- 作者列表："Debta P","Sarode G","Sarode S","Gadbail A","Debta FM","Swain SK","Mishra E","Sahu MC
OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to assess the natural history of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and pretrigeminal neuralgia (PTN) in a hospital-based sample using a retrospective and descriptive study design. METHODS:This study followed a retrospective study design, which yielded a sample size of 216 patients who were reclassified as per the new classification and diagnostic grading for practice and research proposed by the American Academy of Neurology. Based on an in-depth analysis of patient history and the treatments administered, a possible state of PTN prior to TN development was determined. RESULTS:TN shows a female predilection with predominantly unilateral involvement. A total of 45.83% of patients had left-side involvement with V3 primarily affected. Additionally, 11.11% of patients did not have any clinically apparent trigger zone, while 68.05% had a single trigger zone. Twenty-one patients were found to have suspected PTN prior to TN. The time interval between PTN onset and TN development ranged from 6 months to 6 years. The PTN pain varied, and the clinical overlap between the site of PTN and the site of future TN was 100%. CONCLUSION:An in-depth patient history can serve as a reliable modality for TN diagnosis. PTN should be considered as a differential diagnosis for pain of orofacial origin because of its overlapping features with other painful conditions.
目的: 本研究的目的是使用回顾性和描述性研究设计，在医院样本中评估三叉神经痛 (TN) 和三叉神经痛前 (PTN) 的自然病史。 方法: 本研究采用回顾性研究设计,这产生了 216 例患者的样本量，根据美国神经病学学会提出的实践和研究的新分类和诊断分级重新分类。基于对患者病史和给予的治疗的深入分析，确定了 TN 发生前 PTN 的可能状态。 结果: TN 显示女性好发，以单侧受累为主。共有 45.83% 的患者左侧受累，V3 主要受累。此外，11.11% 的患者没有任何临床上明显的触发区，而 68.05% 的患者有单一的触发区。发现 21 例患者在 TN 前疑似 PTN。PTN 发病和 TN 发展的时间间隔为 6 个月至 6 年。PTN 疼痛各不相同，PTN 部位与未来 TN 部位的临床重叠为 100%。 结论: 深入的病史可以作为 TN 诊断的可靠方法。PTN 应被认为是口面部起源疼痛的鉴别诊断疾病，因为它与其他疼痛条件重叠。
METHODS::Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder with clinical symptoms of neuroinflammation and demyelination in the central nervous system. Recently, herbal medicines are clinically effective against MS as the current disease-modifying drugs have limited effectiveness. Hence, the present study evaluated the therapeutic potential of Ocimum basilicum essential oil (OB) in ethidium bromide (EB)-induced cognitive deficits in the male rats. Further, the effect of OB (50, 100 and 200 μL/kg) was evaluated on EB-induced neuroinflammation, astrogliosis and mitochondrial dysfunction in the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) of the animals. The EB was injected through bilateral intracerebroventricular route into hippocampus to induce MS-like manifestations in the rats. OB (100 and 200 μL/kg) and Ursolic acid (UA) significantly reduced the EB-induced cognitive deficits in Morris water maze and Y-maze test paradigms. OB (100 and 200 μL/kg) and UA significantly attenuated the EB-induced neuroinflammation in terms of increase in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-6) in the rat PFC. Further, OB (100 and 200 μL/kg) and UA significantly attenuated the EB-induced astrogliosis in terms of increase in the levels of GFAP (Glial fibrillary acidic protein) and Iba-1 (Ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1) in the rat PFC. In addition, OB (100 and 200 μL/kg) and UA significantly attenuated the EB-induced decrease in the mitochondrial function, integrity, respiratory control rate and ADP/O in the PFC of the rodents. Moreover, OB (100 and 200 μL/kg) and UA significantly reduced the EB-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in the PFC of the rat. Hence, it can be presumed that OB could be a potential alternative drug candidate in the pharmacotherapy of MS.
METHODS::Sleep fragmentation is an increase in sleep-wake transitions without an overall decrease in total sleep time. Sleep fragmentation is well documented during acute and chronic hospitalization and can result in delirium and memory problems in children. Sleep fragmentation is also often noted in neurodevelopmental disorders. However, it is unclear how sleep fragmentation independent of disease affects brain development and function. We hypothesized that acute sleep fragmentation during the neonatal period in otherwise healthy animals would result in neuroinflammation and would be associated with abnormalities in cognitive development. The orbital shaker method was used to fragment sleep for 72 h in postnatal day 3 New Zealand white rabbit kits (fragmentation group). To control for maternal separation, the sham group was separated from the dam and maintained in the same conditions without undergoing sleep fragmentation. A naïve control group remained with the dam. Kits underwent behavioral testing with novel object recognition and spontaneous alternation T-maze tests at 2-3 weeks post-fragmentation and were sacrificed 3-50 days after fragmentation. Sleep fragmentation resulted in acute and chronic changes in microglial morphology in the hippocampus and cortex, and regional differences in mRNA expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines at 3, 7 and 50 days post-fragmentation. Impaired novel object recognition and a longer latency in T-maze task completion were noted in the fragmented kits. This was in spite of normalization of sleep architecture noted at 2 months of age in these kits. The results indicate that transient neonatal sleep fragmentation results in short-term and long-term immune alterations in the brain, along with diminished performance in cognitive tasks long-term.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) is a recently approved therapy for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. To date, there is a poor understanding of the mechanism of action and lack of in vivo biomarkers. We propose a method for investigating the in vivo stimulation effects using blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) MRI and present the brain activation pattern associated with ANT DBS. METHODS:Two patients undergoing ANT DBS for epilepsy underwent BOLD MRI using a block design after the DBS was programmed to alternate ON/OFF in 30 second blocks. The scanner was triggered utilizing surface electrophysiological recording to detect the DBS cycle. Nine total runs were obtained and were analyzed using a general linear model. RESULTS:Active ANT stimulation produced activation within several areas of the brain, including the thalamus, bilateral anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, ventral tegmental area, hippocampus, striatum, and right angular gyrus. CONCLUSIONS:Utilizing block-design BOLD MRI, we were able to show widespread activation resulting from ANT DBS. Overlap with multiple areas of both the default mode and limbic networks was shown suggesting that these nodes may modulate the effect of seizure control with ANT DBS.