- 作者列表："DiBari JN","Azuine RE","Linares DE","Rocha I","Park HY","Raskin Ramos L","Kogan MD","Kavanagh L
OBJECTIVES:To provide an overview and quantitatively demonstrate the reach of the Health Resources and Services Administration's Maternal and Child Health Bureau autism research program. METHODS:We reviewed program reports and internal data from 59 autism research grantees. The US federal Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee's strategic plan questions were used as a framework to highlight the contributions of the autism research program in advancing the field. RESULTS:The autism research program grantees advance research in several ways. Grantees have strengthened the evidence for autism interventions by conducting 89 studies at 79 distinct research sites. A total of 212 708 participants have enrolled in autism research program studies and 361 researchers have contributed to furthering autism research. The program addresses topics that align with the majority of the Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee's priority topic areas, including advancements in treatments and interventions, services and supports, and identifying risk factors. Grantee products include 387 peer-reviewed publications, 19 tools, and 13 practice guidelines for improving care and intervention practices. CONCLUSIONS:The autism research program has contributed to medical advances in research, leveraged innovative training platforms to provide specialized training, and provided access to health services through research-based screening and diagnostic procedures. Autism research program studies have contributed to the development of evidence-based practice guidelines, informed policy guidelines, and quality improvement efforts to bolster advancements in the field. Although disparities still exist, the Health Resources and Services Administration's Maternal and Child Health Bureau can reduce gaps in screening and diagnosis by targeting interventions to underserved populations including minority and rural communities.
目的: 概述并定量展示卫生资源和服务管理局妇幼卫生局自闭症研究项目的范围。 方法: 我们回顾了 59 个自闭症研究受赠者的项目报告和内部数据。美国联邦机构间自闭症协调委员会的战略计划问题被用作一个框架，以突出自闭症研究计划在推进该领域的贡献。 结果: 自闭症研究计划受赠者以多种方式推进研究。受赠者通过在 79 个不同的研究地点进行 89 项研究，加强了自闭症干预的证据。共有 212 708 名参与者参加了自闭症研究项目研究，361 名研究人员为推进自闭症研究做出了贡献。该项目涉及与大多数机构间自闭症协调委员会优先主题领域相一致的主题，包括治疗和干预、服务和支持的进步，以及识别风险因素。受赠方产品包括 387 篇同行评议出版物、 19 个工具和 13 个改进护理和干预实践的实践指南。 结论: 自闭症研究项目为医学研究进展做出了贡献，利用创新培训平台提供专门培训，并通过基于研究的筛查和诊断程序提供了获得卫生服务的机会。自闭症研究项目研究有助于制定循证实践指南、知情政策指南和质量改进工作，以支持该领域的进步。尽管差距仍然存在，但卫生资源和服务管理局的妇幼卫生局可以通过针对包括少数民族和农村社区在内的服务不足人群的干预措施，减少筛查和诊断方面的差距。
METHODS::The adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin has a broad spectrum of functions beyond metabolic control. We previously reported that adiponectin acts in the brain to regulate depression-related behaviors. However, its underlying neural substrates have not been identified. Here we show that adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) is expressed in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and colocalized with tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), a marker of serotonin (5-HT) neurons. Selective deletion of AdipoR1 in 5-HT neurons induced anhedonia in male mice, as indicated by reduced female urine sniffing time and saccharin preference, and behavioral despair in female mice and enhanced stress-induced decrease in sucrose preference in both sexes. The expression levels of TPH2 were downregulated with a concurrent reduction of 5-HT-immunoreactivity in the DRN and its two major projection regions, the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), in male but not female mice lacking AdipoR1 in 5-HT neurons. In addition, serotonin transporter (SERT) expression was upregulated in both DRN projection fields of male mice but only in the mPFC of female mice. These changes presumably lead to decreased 5-HT synthesis and/or increased 5-HT reuptake, thereby reducing 5-HT transmission. The augmented behavioral responses to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine but not desipramine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, observed in conditional knockout male mice supports deficient 5-HT transmission underlying depression-related phenotypes. Our results indicate that adiponectin acts on 5-HT neurons through AdipoR1 receptors to regulate depression-related behaviors in a sex-dependent manner.
METHODS::Multiple schizophrenia (SCZ) risk loci may be involved in gene co-regulation mechanisms, and analysis of coexpressed gene networks may help to clarify SCZ molecular basis. We have previously identified a dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) coexpression module enriched for SCZ risk genes and associated with cognitive and neuroimaging phenotypes of SCZ, as well as with response to treatment with antipsychotics. Here we aimed to identify regulatory factors modulating this coexpression module and their relevance to SCZ. We performed motif enrichment analysis to identify transcription factor (TF) binding sites in human promoters of genes coexpressed with DRD2. Then, we measured transcript levels of a group of these genes in primary mouse cortical neurons in basal conditions and upon overexpression and knockdown of predicted TFs. Finally, we analyzed expression levels of these TFs in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of SCZ patients. Our in silico analysis revealed enrichment for NURR1 and ERR1 binding sites. In neuronal cultures, the expression of genes either relevant to SCZ risk (Drd2, Gatad2a, Slc28a1, Cnr1) or indexing coexpression in our module (Btg4, Chit1, Osr1, Gpld1) was significantly modified by gain and loss of Nurr1 and Err1. Postmortem DLPFC expression data analysis showed decreased expression levels of NURR1 and ERR1 in patients with SCZ. For NURR1 such decreased expression is associated with treatment with antipsychotics. Our results show that NURR1 and ERR1 modulate the transcription of DRD2 coexpression partners and support the hypothesis that NURR1 is involved in the response to SCZ treatment.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In the present study, we provide in silico and experimental evidence for a role of the TFs NURR1 and ERR1 in modulating the expression pattern of genes coexpressed with DRD2 in human DLPFC. Notably, genetic variations in these genes is associated with SCZ risk and behavioral and neuroimaging phenotypes of the disease, as well as with response to treatment. Furthermore, this study presents novel findings on a possible interplay between D2 receptor-mediated dopamine signaling involved in treatment with antipsychotics and the transcriptional regulation mechanisms exerted by NURR1. Our results suggest that coexpression and co-regulation mechanisms may help to explain some of the complex biology of genetic associations with SCZ.
METHODS::Abnormal neurotransmission is central to schizophrenia (SZ). Alterations across multiple neurotransmitter systems in SZ suggest that this illness may be associated with dysregulation of core intracellular processes such as signaling pathways that underlie the regulation and integration of these systems. The AKT-mTOR signaling cascade has been implicated in SZ by gene association, postmortem brain and animal studies. AKT and mTOR are serine/threonine kinases which play important roles in cell growth, proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Both AKT and mTOR require phosphorylation at specific sites for their complete activation. mTOR forms two functionally distinct multiprotein complexes, mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1) and Complex 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1 mediates ribosome biogenesis, protein translation, and autophagy, whereas mTORC2 contributes to actin dynamics. Altered protein synthesis and actin dynamics can lead to an abnormal neuronal morphology resulting in deficits in learning and memory. Currently, there is a lack of direct evidence to support the hypothesis of disrupted mTOR signaling in SZ, and we have addressed this by characterizing this signaling pathway in SZ brain. We found a reduction in AKT and mTOR protein expression and/or phosphorylation state in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) from 22 pairs of SZ and matched comparison subjects. We also found reduced protein expression of GβL, a subunit protein common to both mTOR complexes. We further investigated mTOR complex-specific subunit composition and phosphorylation state, and found abnormal mTOR expression in both complexes in SZ DLPFC. These findings provide evidence that proteins associated with the AKT-mTOR signaling cascade are downregulated in SZ DLPFC.