Gut microbiota from persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder affects the brain in mice.
- 作者列表："Tengeler AC","Dam SA","Wiesmann M","Naaijen J","van Bodegom M","Belzer C","Dederen PJ","Verweij V","Franke B","Kozicz T","Arias Vasquez A","Kiliaan AJ
BACKGROUND:The impact of the gut microbiota on host physiology and behavior has been relatively well established. Whether changes in microbial composition affect brain structure and function is largely elusive, however. This is important as altered brain structure and function have been implicated in various neurodevelopmental disorders, like attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hypothesized that gut microbiota of persons with and without ADHD, when transplanted into mice, would differentially modify brain function and/or structure. We investigated this by colonizing young, male, germ-free C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice with microbiota from individuals with and without ADHD. We generated and analyzed microbiome data, assessed brain structure and function by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and studied mouse behavior in a behavioral test battery. RESULTS:Principal coordinate analysis showed a clear separation of fecal microbiota of mice colonized with ADHD and control microbiota. With diffusion tensor imaging, we observed a decreased structural integrity of both white and gray matter regions (i.e., internal capsule, hippocampus) in mice that were colonized with ADHD microbiota. We also found significant correlations between white matter integrity and the differentially expressed microbiota. Mice colonized with ADHD microbiota additionally showed decreased resting-state functional MRI-based connectivity between right motor and right visual cortices. These regions, as well as the hippocampus and internal capsule, have previously been reported to be altered in several neurodevelopmental disorders. Furthermore, we also show that mice colonized with ADHD microbiota were more anxious in the open-field test. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, we demonstrate that altered microbial composition could be a driver of altered brain structure and function and concomitant changes in the animals' behavior. These findings may help to understand the mechanisms through which the gut microbiota contributes to the pathobiology of neurodevelopmental disorders. Video abstract.
背景: 肠道菌群对宿主生理和行为的影响已经相对较好确立。然而，微生物组成的变化是否影响大脑结构和功能在很大程度上是难以捉摸的。这很重要，因为大脑结构和功能的改变与各种神经发育障碍有关，如注意力缺陷/多动障碍 (ADHD)。我们假设患有和没有 ADHD 的人的肠道菌群，当移植到小鼠体内时，会差异地改变大脑功能和/或结构。我们通过将年轻、雄性、无菌的 C57BL/6JOlaHsd 小鼠与来自 ADHD 和非 ADHD 个体的微生物群进行定植来研究这一点。我们生成并分析了微生物组数据，通过磁共振成像 (MRI) 评估了大脑结构和功能，并在行为测试电池中研究了小鼠行为。 结果: 主坐标分析显示，ADHD 小鼠和对照小鼠的粪便菌群有明显的分离。通过扩散张量成像，我们观察到在 ADHD 微生物群定植的小鼠中，白质和灰质区域 (即内囊、海马) 的结构完整性均下降。我们还发现白质完整性与差异表达菌群之间存在显著相关性。此外，定植于 ADHD 微生物群的小鼠显示基于静息态功能 MRI 的右侧运动和右侧视觉皮质之间的连接减少。这些区域，以及海马和内囊，以前有报道在几种神经发育障碍中发生改变。此外，我们还表明，在旷场试验中，定植有 ADHD 微生物群的小鼠更加焦虑。 结论: 总之，我们证明微生物组成的改变可能是大脑结构和功能改变以及伴随动物行为改变的驱动因素。这些发现可能有助于了解肠道菌群对神经发育障碍的病理生物学的作用机制。视频摘要。
METHODS:Abstract Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a psychosocially impairing and cost-intensive mental disorder, with first symptoms occurring in early childhood. It can usually be diagnosed reliably at preschool age. Early detection of children with ADHD symptoms and an early, age-appropriate treatment are needed in order to reduce symptoms, prevent secondary problems and enable a better school start. Despite existing ADHD treatment research and guideline recommendations for the treatment of ADHD in preschool children, there is still a need to optimise individualised treatment strategies in order to improve outcomes. Therefore, the ESCApreschool study (Evidence-Based, Stepped Care of ADHD in Preschool Children aged 3 years and 0 months to 6 years and 11 months of age (3;0 to 6;11 years) addresses the treatment of 3–6-year-old preschool children with elevated ADHD symptoms within a large multicentre trial. The study aims to investigate the efficacy of an individualised stepwise-intensifying treatment programme. Methods The target sample size of ESCApreschool is 200 children (boys and girls) aged 3;0 to 6;11 years with an ADHD diagnosis according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) or a diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) plus additional substantial ADHD symptoms. The first step of the adaptive, stepped care design used in ESCApreschool consists of a telephone-assisted self-help (TASH) intervention for parents. Participants are randomised to either the TASH group or a waiting control group. The treatment in step 2 depends on the outcome of step 1: TASH responders without significant residual ADHD/ODD symptoms receive booster sessions of TASH. Partial or non-responders of step 1 are randomised again to either parent management and preschool teacher training or treatment as usual. Discussion The ESCApreschool trial aims to improve knowledge about individualised treatment strategies for preschool children with ADHD following an adaptive stepped care approach, and to provide a scientific basis for individualised medicine for preschool children with ADHD in routine clinical care. Trial registration The trial was registered at the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS) as a Current Controlled Trial under DRKS00008971 on 1 October 2015. This manuscript is based on protocol version 3 (14 October 2016).
METHODS:Prefrontal volume reductions commonly are demonstrated in ADHD, but the literature examining prefrontal volume in reading disorders (RD) is scant despite their also having executive functioning (EF) deficits. Furthermore, only a few anatomical studies have examined the frontal lobes in comorbid RD/ADHD, though they have EF deficits similar to RD and ADHD. Hence, we examined frontal gyri volume in children with RD, ADHD, RD/ADHD and controls, as well as their relationship to EF for gyri found to differ between groups. We found right inferior frontal (RIF) volume was smaller in ADHD, and smaller volume was related to worse behavioral regulation. Left superior frontal (LSF) volume was larger in RD than ADHD, and its size was negatively related to basic reading ability. Left middle frontal (LMF) volume was largest in RD/ADHD overall. Further, its volume was not related to basic reading nor behavioral regulation but was related to worse attentional control, suggesting some specificity in its EF relationship. When examining hypotheses on the etiology of RD/ADHD, RD/ADHD was commensurate with ADHD in RIF volume and both RD and ADHD in LSF volume (being midway between the groups), consistent with the common etiology hypothesis. Nevertheless, they also had an additional gyrus affected: LMF, consistent with the cognitive subtype hypothesis in its specificity to RD/ADHD. The few other frontal aMRI studies on RD/ADHD supported both hypotheses as well. Given this, future research should continue to focus on frontal morphology in its endeavors to find neurobiological contributors to the comorbidity between RD and ADHD.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Mechanistic endophenotypes can inform process models of psychopathology and aid interpretation of genetic risk factors. Smaller total brain and subcortical volumes are associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and provide clues to its development. This study evaluates whether common genetic risk for ADHD is associated with total brain volume (TBV) and hypothesized subcortical structures in children. METHODS:Children 7-15 years old were recruited for a case-control study (N = 312, N = 199 ADHD). Children were assessed with a multi-informant, best-estimate diagnostic procedure and motion-corrected MRI measured brain volumes. Polygenic scores were computed based on discovery data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (N = 19 099 ADHD, N = 34 194 controls) and the ENIGMA + CHARGE consortium (N = 26 577). RESULTS:ADHD was associated with smaller TBV, and altered volumes of caudate, cerebellum, putamen, and thalamus after adjustment for TBV; however, effects were larger and statistically reliable only in boys. TBV was associated with an ADHD polygenic score [β = -0.147 (-0.27 to -0.03)], and mediated a small proportion of the effect of polygenic risk on ADHD diagnosis (average ACME = 0.0087, p = 0.012). This finding was stronger in boys (average ACME = 0.019, p = 0.008). In addition, we confirm genetic variation associated with whole brain volume, via an intracranial volume polygenic score. CONCLUSION:Common genetic risk for ADHD is not expressed primarily as developmental alterations in subcortical brain volumes, but appears to alter brain development in other ways, as evidenced by TBV differences. This is among the first demonstrations of this effect using molecular genetic data. Potential sex differences in these effects warrant further examination.