An aqueous extract of a Bifidobacterium species induces apoptosis and inhibits invasiveness of non-small cell lung cancer cells.
- 作者列表："An J","Kim HS","Yang KM
:Chemotherapy regimens for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have various adverse effects on the human body. For this reason, probiotics have received attention regarding their potential value as a safe and natural complementary strategy for cancer prevention. This study analyzed the anticancer effects of aqueous extracts of probiotic bacteria Bifidobacterium bifidum (BB), Bifidobacterium longum (BL), Bifidobacterium lactis (BLA), Bifidobacterium infantis 1 (BI1), and Bifidobacterium infantis 2 (BI2) on NSCLC cell lines. When the aqueous extracts of probiotic Bifidobacterium species were applied to the NSCLC cell lines A549, H1299, and HCC827, cell death increased considerably; in particular, the aqueous extracts from BB and BLA markedly reduced cell proliferation. p38 phosphorylation induced by BB aqueous extract increased the expression of cleaved caspase 3 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), consequently inducing the apoptosis of A549 and H1299 cells. When the p38 inhibitor SB203580 was applied, phosphorylation of p38 decreased, and the expression of cleaved caspase 3 and cleaved PARP was also inhibited, resulting in a reduction of cell death. In addition, BB aqueous extracts reduced the secretion of MMP-9, leading to inhibition of cancer cell invasion. By contrast, after transfection of short hairpin RNA shMMP-9 (for a knockdown of MMP-9) into cancer cells, BB aqueous extracts treatment failed to suppress the cancer cell invasiveness. According to our results about their anticancer effects on NSCLC, probiotics consisting of Bifidobacterium species may be useful as adjunctive anticancer treatment in the future.
: 非小细胞肺癌 (NSCLC) 的化疗方案对人体有各种不良影响。因此，益生菌作为一种安全和天然的癌症预防补充策略的潜在价值受到了关注。本研究分析了益生菌双歧杆菌 (BB) 、长双歧杆菌 (BL) 、乳酸双歧杆菌 (BLA) 、婴儿双歧杆菌 1 (BI1) 、和双歧杆菌 2 (BI2) 对 NSCLC 细胞系的作用。当益生菌双歧杆菌的水提取物应用于 NSCLC 细胞系 A549 、 H1299 和 HCC827 时，细胞死亡显著增加; 特别是,BB 和 BLA 的水提取物显著降低细胞增殖。BB 水提物诱导的 p38 磷酸化增加了裂解的 caspase 3 和裂解的 poly 的表达(ADP-核糖) 聚合酶 (PARP)，从而诱导 A549 和 H1299 细胞凋亡。当应用 p38 抑制剂 SB203580 时，p38 的磷酸化降低，cleaved caspase 3 和 cleaved PARP 的表达也被抑制，导致细胞死亡减少。此外，BB 水提取物减少 MMP-9 的分泌，导致抑制癌细胞的侵袭。相比之下，在将短发夹 RNA shMMP-9 (敲低 MMP-9) 转染到癌细胞后，BB 水提取物处理未能抑制癌细胞侵袭性。根据我们关于它们对 NSCLC 抗癌作用的结果，由双歧杆菌组成的益生菌可能在未来用作辅助抗癌治疗。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The objectives of this study are to assess the chest drainage volumes of patients undergoing anatomic resection of non-small cell lung carcinoma and to determine the safety and effectiveness of administering enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis. METHODS:A total of 77 patients were included in the study. A study was conducted on the first group of 42 patients in which enoxaparin prophylaxis (enoxaparin, 40 mg) was subcutaneously injected once a day for a period of three days after the patients underwent anatomic pulmonary resection between March 2016 and March 2018. An enoxaparin-free group was identified and included 35 patients who received no enoxaparin prophylaxis after undergoing anatomic pulmonary resection between February 2013 and February 2016. We compared the changes in hemoglobin (Hb) levels, postoperative 3-day drainage volume, transfusion volume, pulmonary complications and length of stay between the two groups. RESULTS:No differences in postoperative Hb levels, chest drainage volume, transfusion volume, postoperative complications, and length of stay were observed between the two groups. Deep-vein thrombosis was noted in a patient in the enoxaparin-free group. No major bleeding was noted in either group. CONCLUSION:We found that for patients undergoing anatomic resection of primary lung cancer, the blood transfusion and chest drainage volumes did not differ, regardless of whether the patients were given enoxaparin. To the best of our knowledge, the impact of low-molecular-weight heparin on chest tube drainage volume for patients undergoing anatomic resection of non-small cell lung carcinoma has not been investigated before.
METHODS::The aim of the present study was to compare the safety and efficacy of cryoablation (CA) and microwave ablation (MWA) as treatments for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC treated with CA (n=45) or MWA (n=56) were enrolled in the present study. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS); the secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS) time and adverse events (AEs). The median PFS times between the two groups were not significantly different (P=0.36): CA, 10 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 7.5-12.4] vs. MWA, 11 months (95% CI, 9.5-12.4). The OS times between the two groups were also not significantly different (P=0.07): CA, 27.5 months (95% CI, 22.8-31.2 months) vs. MWA, 18 months (95% CI, 12.5-23.5). For larger tumors (>3 cm), patients treated with MWA had significantly longer median PFS (P=0.04; MWA, 10.5 months vs. CA, 7.0 months) and OS times (P=0.04; MWA, 24.5 months vs. CA, 14.5 months) compared patients treated with CA. However, for smaller tumors (≤3 cm), median PFS (P=0.79; MWA, 11.0 months vs. CA, 13.0 months) and OS times (P=0.39; MWA, 30.0 months vs. CA, 26.5 months) between the two groups did not differ significantly. The incidence rates of AEs were similar in the two groups (P>0.05). The number of applicators, tumor size and length of the lung traversed by applicators were associated with a higher risk of pneumothorax and intra-pulmonary hemorrhage in the two groups. Treatment with CA resulted in significantly less intraprocedural pain compared with treatment with MWA (P=0.001). Overall, the present study demonstrated that CA and MWA were comparably safe and effective procedures for the treatment of small tumors. However, treatment with MWA was superior compared with CA for the treatment of large tumors.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:BRAF mutations occurring in 1%-5% of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are therapeutic targets for these cancers but the impact of the exact mutation on clinical activity is unclear. The French National Cancer Institute (INCA) launched the AcSé vemurafenib trial to assess the efficacy and safety of vemurafenib in cancers with various BRAF mutations. We herein report the results of the NSCLC cohort. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Tumour samples were screened for BRAF mutations in INCA-certified molecular genetic centres. Patients with BRAF-mutated tumours progressing after ≥1 line of treatment were proposed vemurafenib 960 mg twice daily. Between October 2014 and July 2018, 118 patients were enrolled in the NSCLC cohort. The primary outcome was the objective response rate (ORR) assessed every 8 weeks (RECIST v1.1). A sequential Bayesian approach was planned with an inefficacy bound of 10% for ORR. If no early stopping occurred, the treatment was of interest if the estimated ORR was ≥30% with a 90% probability. Secondary outcomes were tolerance, response duration, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS:Of the 118 patients enrolled, 101 presented with a BRAFV600 mutation and 17 with BRAFnonV600 mutations; the median follow-up was 23.9 months. In the BRAFnonV600 cohort, no objective response was observed and this cohort was stopped. In the BRAFV600 cohort, 43/96 patients had objective responses. The mean Bayesian estimated success rate was 44.9% [95% confidence intervals (CI) 35.2%-54.8%]. The ORR had a 99.9% probability of being ≥30%. Median response duration was 6.4 months, median PFS was 5.2 months (95% CI 3.8-6.8), and OS was 10 months (95% CI 6.8-15.7). The vemurafenib safety profile was consistent with previous publications. CONCLUSION:Routine biomarker screening of NSCLC should include BRAFV600 mutations. Vemurafenib monotherapy is effective for treating patients with BRAFV600-mutated NSCLC but not those with BRAFnonV600 mutations. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02304809.