Characterization of Influenza A and B Viruses Circulating in Southern China During the 2017-2018 Season.
- 作者列表："Yan Y","Ou J","Zhao S","Ma K","Lan W","Guan W","Wu X","Zhang J","Zhang B","Zhao W","Wan C","Shi W","Wu J","Seto D","Yu Z","Zhang Q
:The trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine was the only approved and available vaccine during the 2016-2018 influenza seasons. It did not include the B/Yamagata strain. In this study, we report an acute respiratory disease outbreak associated with influenza B/Yamagata infections in Guangzhou, Southern China (January through March, 2018). Among the 9914 patients, 2241 (22.6%) were positive for the influenza B virus, with only 312 (3.1%) positive for the influenza A virus. The influenza B/Yamagata lineage dominated during this period in Southern China. The highest incidence of influenza A virus infection occurred in the children aged 5-14 years. In contrast, populations across all age groups were susceptible to the influenza B virus. Phylogenetic, mutations, and 3D structure analyses of hemagglutinin (HA) genes were performed to assess the vaccine-virus relatedness. The recommended A/H1N1 vaccine strain (A/Michigan/45/2015) during both 2017-2018 and 2018-2019 was antigen-specific for these circulating isolates (clade 6B.1) in Spring 2018. An outbreak of influenza B/Yamagata (clade 3) infections in 2018 occurred during the absence of the corresponding vaccine during 2016-2018. The recommended influenza B/Yamagata vaccine strain (B/Phuket/3073/2013) for the following season (2018-2019) was antigen-specific. Although there were only a few influenza B/Victoria infections in Spring 2018, five amino acid mutations were identified in the HA antigenic sites of the 19 B/Victoria isolates (clade 1A), when compared with the 2016-2018 B/Victoria vaccine strain. The number was larger than expected and suggested that the influenza B HA gene may be more variable than previously thought. One of the mutations (K180N) was noted to likely alter the epitope and to potentially affect the viral antigenicity. Seven mutations were also identified in the HA antigenic sites of 2018-2020 B/Victoria vaccine strain, of which some or all may reduce immunogenicity and the protective efficacy of the vaccine, perhaps leading to more outbreaks in subsequent seasons. The combined epidemiological, phylogenetic, mutations, and 3D structural analyses of the HA genes of influenza strains reported here contribute to the understanding and evaluation of how HA mutations affect vaccine efficacy, as well as to providing important data for screening and selecting more specific, appropriate, and effective influenza vaccine candidate strains.
: 三价季节性流感疫苗是 2016-2018 流感季节期间唯一获得批准和可用的疫苗。它不包括 B/Yamagata 菌株。在本研究中，我们报告了中国南方广州 (2018 年 1 月至 3 月) 一起与 b型/山形流感感染相关的急性呼吸道疾病爆发。9914 例患者中，乙型流感病毒阳性 2241 例 (22.6%)，甲型流感病毒阳性仅 312 例 (3.1%)。中国南方这一时期占主导地位的 b型/山形流感谱系。发病率最高的甲型流感病毒感染的儿童 5 ~ 14 岁.相比之下，所有年龄组的人群都对乙型流感病毒敏感。进行血凝素 (HA) 基因的系统发育、突变和 3D 结构分析，以评估疫苗-病毒相关性。在 45/2015-2017 和 2018-2018 期间推荐的 A/H1N1 疫苗株 (A/Michigan/2019) 在 2018 春季对这些循环分离株 (clade 6B.1) 具有抗原特异性。在 2016-2018 期间，在没有相应疫苗的情况下，发生了 2018 年 B/Yamagata 流感 (3 级) 感染的爆发。推荐的 B/Yamagata 流感疫苗株 (B/Phuket/3073/2013) 在接下来的季节 (2018-2019) 是抗原特异性的。虽然在 2018 春季只有少数 B/Victoria 流感感染，但在 19 个 B/Victoria 分离株 (clade 1A) 的 HA 抗原位点中发现了 5 个氨基酸突变,与 2016-2018 B/Victoria 疫苗株相比。这个数字比预期的要大，并提示乙型流感 HA 基因可能比以前认为的更具变异性。其中一个突变 (K180N) 被注意到可能改变表位并潜在影响病毒抗原性。在 2018-2020 B/Victoria 疫苗株的 HA 抗原位点也发现了 7 个突变，其中部分或全部可能降低免疫原性和疫苗的保护效力,也许会导致随后季节更多的爆发。本文报道的流感毒株 HA 基因的流行病学、系统发育、突变和 3D 结构分析相结合，有助于理解和评价 HA 突变如何影响疫苗效力,以及为筛选和选择更特异、合适、有效的流感疫苗候选株提供重要数据。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:From 2015/16 through 2017/18, injectable, trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV3) and a nasal spray, tetravalent live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) were used in parallel in Finland. To understand how well vaccination with each vaccine type protected children against influenza under real-life conditions, vaccine effectiveness in two-year-olds was estimated for all three seasons. METHODS:Each season, a nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted. The study population comprised 60,088 children in 2015/16, 60,860 children in 2016/17 and 60,345 children in 2017/18. Laboratory-confirmed influenza was the study outcome. Seasonal influenza vaccination with either LAIV4 or IIV3 was the time-dependent exposure of interest. Vaccine effectiveness was defined as 1 minus the hazard ratio comparing vaccinated with unvaccinated children. RESULTS:From 2015/16 through 2017/18, the effectiveness of LAIV4 against influenza of any virus type was estimated at 54.2% (95% confidence interval, 32.2%-69.0%), 20.3% (-12.7% to 43.6%) and 30.5% (10.9%-45.9%); the corresponding effectiveness of IIV3 was 77.2% (48.9%-89.8%), 24.5% (-29.8% to 56.1%) and -20.1% (-61.5% to 10.7%). Neither of the influenza vaccines clearly excelled in protecting children. The LAIV4 effectiveness against type B was greater than against type A and greater than the IIV3 effectiveness against type B. CONCLUSIONS:To understand how influenza vaccines could be improved, vaccine effectiveness must be analyzed by vaccine and virus type. Effectiveness estimates expressing also overall protection levels are needed to guide individual and programmatic decision-making processes. Supported by this analysis, the vaccination program in Finland now recommends LAIV4 and injectable, tetravalent inactivated influenza vaccines replacing IIV3.
METHODS::Intranasally administered influenza vaccines could be more effective than injected vaccines, since intranasal vaccination can induce virus-specific IgA antibodies in the upper respiratory tract, which is the initial site of infection. In the current study, immune responses elicited by an intranasal inactivated H5 influenza vaccine were evaluated in healthy H5 influenza virus-naive individuals. Three doses of intranasal inactivated whole-virion H5 influenza vaccine induced strong neutralizing nasal IgA and serum IgG antibodies. In addition, a mucoadhesive excipient, carboxy-vinyl polymer (CVP), had a notable impact on the induction of nasal IgA antibody responses but not serum IgG antibody responses. The nasal hemagglutinin (HA)-specific IgA antibody responses clearly correlated with mucosal neutralizing antibody responses, indicating that measurement of nasal HA-specific IgA titers could be used as a surrogate for the mucosal antibody response. Furthermore, increased numbers of plasma cells and vaccine antigen-specific helper T (Th) cells in the peripheral blood were observed after vaccination, suggesting that peripheral blood biomarkers may also be used to evaluate the intranasal vaccine-induced immune response. However, peripheral blood immune cell responses correlated with neutralizing antibody titers in serum samples but not in nasal wash samples. Thus, analysis of the peripheral blood immune response could be a surrogate for the systemic immune response to intranasal vaccination but not for the mucosal immune response. The current study suggests the clinical potential of intranasal inactivated vaccines against H5 influenza viruses and highlights the need to develop novel means to evaluate intranasal vaccine-induced mucosal immune responses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Influenza is an important public health problem and existing vaccines are not completely protective. New vaccines that protect by alternative mechanisms are needed to improve efficacy of influenza vaccines. In 2015, we did a phase 1 trial of an oral influenza vaccine, VXA-A1.1. A favourable safety profile and robust immunogenicity results in that trial supported progression of the vaccine to the current phase 2 trial. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of the vaccine in a human influenza challenge model. METHODS:We did a single-site, placebo-controlled and active-controlled, phase 2 study at WCCT Global, Costa Mesa, CA, USA. Eligible individuals had an initial A/California/H1N1 haemagglutination inhibition titre of less than 20 and were aged 18-49 years and in good health. Individuals were randomly assigned (2:2:1) to receive a single immunisation of either 1011 infectious units of VXA-A1.1 (a monovalent tablet vaccine) orally, a full human dose of quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) via intramuscular injection, or matched placebo. Randomisation was done by computer-generated assignments with block size of five. An unmasked pharmacist provided the appropriate vaccines and placebos to the administrating nurse. Individuals receiving the treatments, investigators, and staff were all masked to group assignments. 90 days after immunisation, individuals without clinically significant symptoms or signs of influenza, an oral temperature of higher than 37·9°C, a positive result for respiratory viral shedding on a Biofire test, and any investigator-assessed contraindications were challenged intranasally with 0·5 mL wild-type A/CA/like(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus. The primary outcomes were safety, which was assessed in all immunised participants through 365 days, and influenza-positive illness after viral challenge, which was assessed in individuals that received the viral challenge and the required number of assessments post viral challenge. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02918006. RESULTS:Between Aug 31, 2016, and Jan 23, 2017, 374 individuals were assessed for eligibility, of whom 179 were randomly assigned to receive either VXA-A1.1 (n=71 [one individual did not provide a diary card, thus the solicited events were assessed in 70 individuals]), IIV (n=72), or placebo (n=36). Between Dec 2, 2016, and April 26, 2017, 143 eligible individuals (58 in the VXA-A1.1 group, 54 in the IIV group, and 31 in the placebo group) were challenged with influenza virus. VXA-A1.1 was well tolerated with no serious or medically significant adverse events. The most prevalent solicited adverse events for each of the treatment groups after immunisation were headache in the VXA-A1.1 (in five [7%] of 70 participants) and placebo (in seven [19%] of 36 participants) groups and tenderness at injection site in the IIV group (in 19 [26%] of 72 participants) Influenza-positive illness after challenge was detected in 17 (29%) of 58 individuals in the VXA-A1.1 group, 19 (35%) of 54 in the IIV group, and 15 (48%) of 31 in the placebo group. INTERPRETATION:Orally administered VXA-A1.1 was well tolerated and generated protective immunity against virus shedding, similar to a licensed intramuscular IIV. These results represent a major step forward in developing a safe and effective oral influenza vaccine. FUNDING:Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, and Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority.