Intermittent Fasting and High-Intensity Exercise Elicit Sexual-Dimorphic and Tissue-Specific Adaptations in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.
- 作者列表："Wilson RA","Stathis CG","Hayes A","Cooke MB
:: The molecular adaptations that underpin body composition changes and health benefits of intermittent fasting (IF) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) are unclear. The present study investigated these adaptations within the hypothalamus, white adipose and skeletal muscle tissue following 12 weeks of IF and/or HIIT in diet-induced obese mice. Mice (C57BL/6, 8-week-old, males/females) were fed high-fat (59%) and sugar (30%) water (HF/S) for 12 weeks followed by an additional 12 weeks of HF/S plus either IF, HIIT, combination (IF+HIIT) or HF/S only control (CON). Tissues were harvested at 12 and 24 weeks and analysed for various molecular markers. Hypothalamic NPY expression was significantly lower following IF+HIIT compared to CON in females. In adipose tissue, leptin expression was significantly lower following IF and IF+HIIT compared to CON in males and females. Males demonstrated increased markers of fat oxidation (HADH, FABP4) following IF+HIIT, whereas females demonstrated reduced markers of adipocyte differentiation/storage (CIDEC and FOXO1) following IF and/or IF+HIIT. In muscle, SIRT1, UCP3, PGC1α, and AS160 expression was significantly lower following IF compared to CON in males and/or females. This investigation suggests that males and females undertaking IF and HIIT may prevent weight gain via different mechanisms within the same tissue.
: 间歇性禁食 (IF) 和高强度间歇训练 (HIIT) 支撑身体成分变化和健康益处的分子适应尚不清楚。本研究在饮食诱导的肥胖小鼠中研究了 12 周 IF 和/或 HIIT 后下丘脑、白色脂肪和骨骼肌组织内的这些适应。小鼠 (C57BL/6，8 周龄，雄性/雌性) 喂食高脂肪 (59%) 和糖 (30%) 水 (HF/S) 12 周，随后额外 12 周 HF/S 加 IF 、 HIIT 、组合 (IF + HIIT) 或仅 HF/S 对照 (CON)。在 12 周和 24 周收获组织，并分析各种分子标记。与女性 CON 相比，IF + HIIT 后下丘脑 NPY 表达显著降低。在脂肪组织中，与男性和女性的 CON 相比，IF 和 IF + HIIT 后瘦素表达显著降低。男性表现出 IF + HIIT 后脂肪氧化标记物 (HADH，FABP4) 增加，而女性表现出脂肪细胞分化/储存标记物 (CIDEC 和 FOXO1) 减少遵循 IF 和/或 IF + HIIT。在肌肉中，与男性和/或女性的 CON 相比，SIRT1 、 UCP3 、 pgc1 α 和 AS160 表达显著降低。本研究表明，男性和女性在同一组织内进行 IF 和 HIIT 可能通过不同的机制防止体重增加。
METHODS:Maintaining adequate daily protein intake is important to maintain muscle mass throughout the lifespan. In this regard, the overnight period has been identified as a window of opportunity to increase protein intake in the elderly. However, it is unknown whether pre-sleep protein intake affects next-morning appetite and, consequently, protein intake. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of a pre-sleep protein drink on next-morning appetite, energy intake and metabolism. Twelve older individuals (eight males, four females; age: 71.3 ± 4.2 years) took part in a single-blind randomised cross-over study. After a standardised dinner, participants consumed either a 40-g protein drink, isocaloric maltodextrin drink, or placebo water control before bedtime. Next-morning appetite, energy intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR), respiratory exchange rate (RER), and plasma acylated ghrelin, leptin, glucose, and insulin concentrations were assessed. No between-group differences were observed for appetite and energy intake at breakfast. Furthermore, RMR, RER, and assessed blood markers were not significantly different between any of the treatment groups. Pre-sleep protein intake does not affect next-morning appetite and energy intake and is therefore a viable strategy to increase daily protein intake in an older population.
METHODS:Leptin (LEP) regulates glucose metabolism and energy storage in the body. Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with the upregulation of serum LEP. LEP promoter methylation is associated with obesity. So far, few studies have explored the association of BMI and OA with LEP methylation. We assessed the interaction between body mass index (BMI) and OA on LEP promoter methylation. Data of 1114 participants comprising 583 men and 558 women, aged 30−70 years were retrieved from the Taiwan Biobank Database (2008−2015). Osteoarthritis was self-reported and cases were those who reported having ever been clinically diagnosed with osteoarthritis. BMI was categorized into underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity. The mean LEP promoter methylation level in individuals with osteoarthritis was 0.5509 ± 0.00437 and 0.5375 ± 0.00101 in those without osteoarthritis. The interaction between osteoarthritis and BMI on LEP promoter methylation was significant (p-value = 0.0180). With normal BMI as the reference, the mean LEP promoter methylation level was significantly higher in obese osteoarthritic individuals (β = 0.03696, p-value = 0.0187). However, there was no significant association between BMI and LEP promoter methylation in individuals without osteoarthritis, regardless of BMI. In conclusion, only obesity was significantly associated with LEP promoter methylation (higher levels) specifically in osteoarthritic patients.
METHODS:Background For the same BMI, South Asians have a higher body fat percentage, a higher liver fat content and a more adverse metabolic profile than whites. South Asians may have a lower fat oxidation than whites, which could result in an unfavorable metabolic profile when exposed to increased high-fat foods consumption and decreased physical activity as in current modern lifestyle. Objective To determine substrate partitioning, liver fat accumulation and metabolic profile in South Asian and white men in response to overfeeding with high-fat diet under sedentary conditions in a respiration chamber. Design Ten South Asian men (BMI, 18–29 kg/m^2) and 10 white men (BMI, 22–33 kg/m^2), matched for body fat percentage, aged 20–40 year were included. A weight maintenance diet (30% fat, 55% carbohydrate, and 15% protein) was given for 3 days. Thereafter, a baseline measurement of liver fat content (1H-MRS) and blood parameters was performed. Subsequently, subjects were overfed (150% energy requirement) with a high-fat diet (60% fat, 25% carbohydrate, and 15% protein) over 3 consecutive days while staying in a respiration chamber mimicking a sedentary lifestyle. Energy expenditure and substrate use were measured for 3 × 24-h. Liver fat and blood parameters were measured again after the subjects left the chamber. Results The 24-h fat oxidation as a percentage of total energy expenditure did not differ between ethnicities ( P = 0.30). Overfeeding increased liver fat content ( P = 0.02), but the increase did not differ between ethnicities ( P = 0.64). In South Asians, overfeeding tended to increase LDL-cholesterol ( P = 0.08), tended to decrease glucose clearance ( P = 0.06) and tended to elevate insulin response ( P = 0.07) slightly more than whites. Conclusions Despite a similar substrate partitioning and similar accretion of liver fat, overfeeding with high-fat under sedentary conditions tended to have more adverse effects on the lipid profile and insulin sensitivity in South Asians.