- 作者列表："Joanna Bielecka","Renata Markiewicz-Żukowska
Cancers are the first main cause of premature death in developed countries. Since brain tumors, especially gliomas, are the most lethal type of cancers, risk factors for their prevalence are still being discussed. Nearly 30–50% of all cancers could be prevented by proper nutritional habits and other lifestyle factors, but their influence on the tumors of the central nervous system has not been explained completely and still requires further studies. That is why we attempted to review the available research in this field, with a special focus on the factors with the proven protective activity observed in other cancers. Adequate vegetables and antioxidants (such as vitamins C and A) provided with a diet could have a protective effect, while other factors have shown no correlation with the incidence of glioma. However, further studies are necessary to determine whether fish, coffee, and tea consumption may prevent glioma. Maintaining proper body weight and undertaking a sufficient level of daily physical activity also seem to be important. Excessive body mass index (BMI) and higher attained height have increased the risk of glioma. In order to link more accurately the chosen factors to the prevalence of gliomas, it seems necessary to conduct large cohort, prospective, controlled studies in different world regions.
在发达国家，癌症是导致过早死亡的首要原因。由于脑肿瘤，特别是胶质瘤，是最致命的癌症类型，因此其患病率的危险因素仍在讨论中。近 30-50% 的癌症可以通过适当的营养习惯和其他生活方式因素来预防,但它们对中枢神经系统肿瘤的影响尚未完全阐明，仍需进一步研究。这就是为什么我们试图回顾这一领域的现有研究，特别关注在其他癌症中观察到的证明有保护活性的因素。饮食中提供足够的蔬菜和抗氧化剂 (如维生素c 和 A) 可能具有保护作用，而其他因素与神经胶质瘤的发病率没有相关性。然而，进一步的研究是必要的，以确定是否鱼，咖啡，和茶的消费可能预防神经胶质瘤。保持适当的体重和进行足够的日常体育活动似乎也很重要。过度的体重指数 (BMI) 和更高的身高增加了神经胶质瘤的风险。为了更准确地将所选择的因素与胶质瘤的患病率联系起来，似乎有必要在世界不同地区进行大型队列、前瞻性、对照研究。
METHODS::Glioma growth can cause pervasive changes in the functional connectivity (FC) of brain networks, which has been associated with re-organization of brain functions and development of functional deficits in patients. Mechanisms underlying functional re-organization in brain networks are not understood and efforts to utilize functional imaging for surgical planning, or as a biomarker of functional outcomes are confounded by the heterogeneity in available human data. Here we apply multiple imaging modalities in a well-controlled murine model of glioma with extensive validation using human data to explore mechanisms of FC disruption due to glioma growth. We find gliomas cause both local and distal changes in FC. FC changes in networks proximal to the tumor occur secondary to hemodynamic alterations but surprisingly, remote FC changes are independent of hemodynamic mechanisms. Our data strongly implicate hemodynamic alterations as the main driver of local changes in measurements of FC in patients with glioma.
METHODS::Mutations in LZTR1, already known to be causal in familial schwannomatosis type 2, have been recently involved in a small proportion of patients with autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive Noonan syndrome. LZTR1 is also a driver gene in non syndromal glioblastoma. We report a 26-year-old patient with typical Noonan syndrome, and the dominantly transmitted c.850C > T (p.(Arg284Cys)) variant in LZTR1. An oligoastrocytoma was diagnosed in the patient at the age of 22 years; recurrence of the tumor occurred at age 26, as a ganglioblastoma. The patient had been transiently treated with growth hormone between ages 15 and 17. Considering the implication of LZTR1 in sporadic tumors of the nervous system, we hypothesize that gliomas are a possible complication of LZTR1-related Noonan syndrome. This report also supports a possible link between occurrence of a cerebral tumor in Noonan syndrome and a previous treatment with growth hormone.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) provides vascular information and plays an important role in improving the diagnostic accuracy of preoperative glioma grading. Intratumoral susceptibility signal intensities (ITSS) obtained from SWI has been used in glioma grading. However, the current method for estimation of ITSS is semiquantitative, manual count-dependent, and includes hemorrhage as well as vasculature. PURPOSE:To develop a quantitative approach that calculates the vasculature volume within tumors by filtering out the hemorrhage from ITSS using R2 * values and connected component analysis-based segmentation algorithm; to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed ITSS vasculature volume (IVV) for differentiating various grades of glioma; and compare it with reported semiquantitative ITSS approach. STUDY TYPE:Retrospective. SUBJECTS:Histopathologically confirmed 41 grade IV, 19 grade III, and 15 grade II glioma patients.Field Strength/Sequence: SWI (four echoes: 5.6, 11.8, 18, 24.2 msec) along with conventional MRI sequences (T2 -weighted, T1 -weighted, 3D-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery [FLAIR], and diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI]) at 3.0T. ASSESSMENT:R2 * relaxation maps were calculated from multiecho SWI. The R2 * cutoff value for hemorrhage ITSS was determined. A segmentation algorithm was designed, based on this R2 * hemorrhage combined with connected component shape analysis, to quantify the IVV from all slices containing tumor by filtering out hemorrhages. Semiquantitative ITSS scoring as well as total ITSS volume (TIV) including hemorrhages were also calculated. STATISTICAL TESTS:One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey-Kramer post-hoc tests were performed to see the difference among the three grades of the tumor (II, III, and IV) in terms of semiquantitative ITSS scoring, TIV, and IVV. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the performance of the three methods individually in discriminating between grades of glioma. RESULTS:One-way ANOVA showed that only the proposed IVV significantly differentiated different grades of gliomas having visible ITSS. ROC analysis showed that IVV provided the highest AUC for the discrimination of grade II vs. III (0.93), grade III vs. IV (0.98), and grade II vs. IV glioma (0.94). IVV also provided the highest sensitivity and specificity for differentiating grade II vs. III (87.44, 98.41), grade III vs. IV (97.15, 94.12), and grade II vs. IV (98.72, 92.31). DATA CONCLUSION:The proposed quantitative method segregates hemorrhage from tumor vasculature. It scores above the existing semiquantitative method in terms of ITSS estimation and grading accuracy. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:4 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2020;51:225-233.