- 作者列表："Goldstein D","Von Hoff DD","Chiorean EG","Reni M","Tabernero J","Ramanathan RK","Botteman M","Aly A","Margunato-Debay S","Lu B","Louis CU","McGovern D","Lee CK
OBJECTIVES:This analysis investigated nomogram use to evaluate metastatic pancreatic cancer prognosis. METHODS:Thirty-four baseline factors were examined in the Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Clinical Trial (MPACT) (nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine vs gemcitabine) data set. Factors significantly (P < 0.1) associated with overall survival (OS) in a univariable model or with known clinical relevance were tested further. In a multivariable model, factors associated with OS (P < 0.1) were selected to generate the primary nomogram, which was internally validated using bootstrapping, a concordance index, and calibration plots. RESULTS:Using data from 861 patients, 6 factors were retained (multivariable analysis): neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, albumin level, Karnofsky performance status, sum of longest diameter of target lesions, presence of liver metastases, and previous Whipple procedure. The nomogram distinguished low-, medium-, and high-risk groups (concordance index, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.69; median OS, 11.7, 8.0, and 3.3 months, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:This nomogram may guide estimates of the range of OS outcomes and contribute to patient stratification in future prospective metastatic pancreatic cancer trials; however, external validation is required to improve estimate reliability and applicability to a general patient population. Caution should be exercised in interpreting these results for treatment decisions: patient characteristics could differ from those included in the nomogram development.
目的: 本分析调查列线图用于评估转移性胰腺癌的预后。 方法: 在转移性胰腺癌临床试验 (MPACT) (白蛋白结合型紫杉醇联合吉西他滨 vs 吉西他滨) 数据集中检查 34 个基线因素。进一步检验了与单变量模型总生存期 (OS) 或已知临床相关性显著相关的因素 (P <0.1)。在多变量模型中，选择与 OS 相关的因素 (P < 0.1) 生成主要列线图，使用自举、一致性指数和校准图进行内部验证。 结果: 使用来自 861 例患者的数据，保留了 6 个因素 (多变量分析): 中性粒细胞-淋巴细胞比值、白蛋白水平、 Karnofsky 性能状态、靶病灶最长直径总和、存在肝转移，既往有 Whipple 手术史。列线图区分了低、中、高危组 (一致性指数，0.67; 95% 置信区间，0.65-0.69; 中位 OS，11.7 、 8.0 和 3.3 个月,分别)。 结论: 该列线图可能指导 OS 结局范围的估计，并有助于未来转移性胰腺癌试验中的患者分层; 然而,需要外部验证以提高估计的可靠性和对一般患者人群的适用性。在解释这些结果以作出治疗决定时应谨慎: 患者特征可能与列线图开发中包括的特征不同。
METHODS::Aims: Radiotherapy is predominantly used as one of the treatment modalities to treat local tumor in colorectal cancer (CRC). Hindrance in disease treatment can be attributed to radio-tolerance of cancer stem cells (CSCs) subsistence in the tumor. Understanding the radio-resistant property of CSCs might help in the accomplishment of targeted radiotherapy treatment and increased disease-free survival. Telomeric RAP1 contributes in modulation of various transcription factors leading to aberrant cell proliferation and tumor cell migration. Therefore, we investigated the role of RAP1 in maintaining resistance phenotype and acquired stemness in radio-resistant cells.Main Methods: Characterization of HCT116 derived radio-resistant cell (HCT116RR) was performed by cell survival and DNA damage profiling. RAP1 silenced cells were investigated for DNA damage and expression of CSC markers through western blotting and Real-time PCR post-irradiation. Molecular docking and co-immunoprecipitation study were performed to investigate RAP1 and KLF4 interaction followed by RAP1 protein status profiling in CRC patient.Key findings: We established radio-resistant cells, which showed tolerance to radiotherapy and elevated expression of CSC markers along with RAP1. RAP1 silencing showed enhanced DNA damage and reduced expression of CSC markers post-irradiation. We observed strong physical interaction between RAP1 and KLF4 protein. Furthermore, higher RAP1 expression was observed in the tumor of CRC patients. Dataset analysis also revealed that high expression of RAP1 expression is associated with poor prognosis.Significance: We conclude that higher expression ofRAP1 implicates its possible role in promoting radio-resistance in CRC cells by modulating DNA damage and CSC phenotype.
METHODS::Cancer stem-like cells are rare immortal cells within tumor, which are thought to play important roles in ionizing radiation (IR) therapy-resistance. Quercetin is a natural flavonoid with potential anti-cancer properties without significant cytotoxicity in normal tissues. In this study, we demonstrated that quercetin-IR combination treatment exhibited more dramatic anti-cancer effect than either quercetin or IR treatment alone via targeting colon cancer stem cells (CSCs) and inhibiting the Notch-1 signaling. These effects were further verified by in vivo studies which showed remarkable decrease of the CSCs markers and the expression of Notch-1 signaling proteins in human colon cancer xenografts in nude mice. Co-treatment with quercetin and low dose of radiation significantly reduced the expressions of all five proteins of γ-secretase complex in HT-29 and DLD-1 cells. In addition, ectopic expression of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) partly reversed the inhibition effects by the combination therapy. In conclusion, our results indicated that the combination of quercetin (20 μM) and IR (5Gy) might be a promising therapeutic strategy for colon cancer treatment by targeting colon cancer stem-like cells and inhibiting the Notch-1 signaling. In future studies, we intend to further explore the potential therapeutic efficacy of the quercetin-radiation combination treatment in clinical trials.
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:Long-term prevention of metastatic disease remains a challenge in locally advanced rectal cancer, and robust pretreatment prognostic factors for metastatic progression are lacking. We hypothesized that detecting circulating tumor-specific DNA (ctDNA) based on hypermethylation of the neuropeptide Y gene (meth-ctDNA) could be a prognostic marker in the neoadjuvant setting; we examined this in a secondary, explorative analysis of a prospective trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Serum samples were prospectively collected in a phase III trial for locally advanced rectal cancer. Positivity for and fractional abundance of meth-ctDNA in baseline samples were estimated. Overall survival (OS) and the rate of distant metastases were compared between meth-ctDNA positive and negative patients; other prognostic factors were controlled for in multivariate Cox regression. Importance of quantitative load was examined by considering the fractional abundance of meth-ctDNA relative to total circulating DNA. RESULTS:Baseline serum samples were available for 146 patients. In total, 30 patients had presence of meth-ctDNA, with no correlation with cT (P=0.8) or cN (P=0.6) stages. Median follow-up was 10.6 years for OS and 5.1 years for freedom from distant metastases. Patients with meth-ctDNA had significantly worse 5-year OS (47% vs. 69%), even when controlling for other prognostic factors (hazard ratio=2.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-1.51). This seemed mainly driven by disparity in the rate of distant metastases (55% vs. 72% at 5 y, P=0.01); hazard ratio=2.20 (95% confidence interval, 1.19-4.07, P=0.01) in multivariate analysis. Increased quantitative load was highly significant for worse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:Meth-ctDNA could be a potential prognostic marker in the neoadjuvant setting and may, if validated, identify patients at increased risk of distant metastases.