- 作者列表："Anthony M. Battram","Mireia Bachiller","Beatriz Martín-Antonio
Cellular senescence was first described as a physiological tumor cell suppressor mechanism that leads to cell growth arrest with production of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype known as SASP. The main role of SASP in physiological conditions is to attract immune cells to clear senescent cells avoiding tumor development. However, senescence can be damage-associated and, depending on the nature of these stimuli, additional types of senescence have been described. In the context of cancer, damage-associated senescence has been described as a consequence of chemotherapy treatments that were initially thought of as a tumor suppressor mechanism. However, in certain contexts, senescence after chemotherapy can promote cancer progression, especially when immune cells become senescent and cannot clear senescent tumor cells. Moreover, aging itself leads to continuous inflammaging and immunosenescence which are responsible for rewiring immune cells to become defective in their functionality. Here, we define different types of senescence, pathways that activate them, and functions of SASP in these events. Additionally, we describe the role of senescence in cancer and its treatments, including how aging and chemotherapy contribute to senescence in tumor cells, before focusing on immune cell senescence and its role in cancer. Finally, we discuss potential therapeutic interventions to reverse cell senescence.
细胞衰老最初被描述为一种生理性肿瘤细胞抑制机制，导致细胞生长停滞，产生衰老相关的分泌表型，称为 SASP。SASP 在生理条件下的主要作用是吸引免疫细胞清除衰老细胞，避免肿瘤发展。然而，衰老可能与损伤相关，并且根据这些刺激的性质，已经描述了其他类型的衰老。在癌症的背景下，损伤相关的衰老被描述为最初被认为是肿瘤抑制机制的化疗治疗的结果。然而，在某些情况下，化疗后的衰老可以促进癌症进展，特别是当免疫细胞变得衰老并且不能清除衰老的肿瘤细胞时。此外，衰老本身会导致持续的炎症和免疫衰老，这些炎症和免疫衰老负责重新连接免疫细胞，使其功能变得有缺陷。在这里，我们定义了不同类型的衰老，激活它们的途径，以及 SASP 在这些事件中的功能。此外，在关注免疫细胞衰老及其在癌症中的作用之前，我们描述了衰老在癌症及其治疗中的作用，包括衰老和化疗如何促进肿瘤细胞衰老。最后，我们讨论了逆转细胞衰老的潜在治疗干预措施。
METHODS::Macrophages (MΦ) play a critical role in tumor growth, immunosuppression and inhibition of adaptive immune responses in cancer. Hence, targeting signaling pathways in MΦs that promote tumor immunosuppression will provide therapeutic benefit. PI3Kγ has been recently established by our group and others as a novel immuno-oncology target. Herein, we report that a macrophage Syk-PI3K axis drives polarization of immunosuppressive MΦs which establish an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment in in vivo syngeneic tumor models. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of Syk and/or PI3Kγ in MΦs promotes a pro-inflammatory MΦphenotype, restores CD8+ T cell activity, destabilizes HIF under hypoxia, and stimulates an antitumor immune response. Assay for Transposase-accessible Chromatin using Sequencing (ATAC-seq) analyses on the bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) show that inhibition of Syk kinase promotes activation and binding of NF-κB motif in SykMC-KO BMDMs, thus stimulating immunostimulatory transcriptional programming in MΦs to suppress tumor growth. Finally, we have developed in silico the "first in class" dual Syk/PI3K inhibitor, SRX3207, for the combinatorial inhibition of Syk and PI3K in one small molecule. This chemotype demonstrates efficacy in multiple tumor models and represents a novel combinatorial approach to activate antitumor immunity.
METHODS::Dysfunction of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells in tumor microenvironment hinders their anti-tumor efficacy, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that iNKT cells increase lipid biosynthesis after activation, and that is promoted by PPARγ and PLZF synergically through enhancing transcription of Srebf1. Among those lipids, cholesterol is required for the optimal IFN-γ production from iNKT cells. Lactic acid in tumor microenvironment reduces expression of PPARγ in intratumoral iNKT cells and consequently diminishes their cholesterol synthesis and IFN-γ production. Importantly, PPARγ agonist pioglitazone, a thiazolidinedione drug for type 2 diabetes, successfully restores IFN-γ production in tumor-infiltrating iNKT cells from both human patients and mouse models. Combination of pioglitazone and alpha-galactosylceramide treatments significantly enhances iNKT cell-mediated anti-tumor immune responses and prolongs survival of tumor-bearing mice. Our studies provide a strategy to augment the anti-tumor efficacy of iNKT cell-based immunotherapies via promoting their lipid biosynthesis.
METHODS::Near-infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a newly developed and selective cancer treatment that induces necrotic and immunogenic cell death and utilizes a monoclonal antibody conjugated to a photo-absorber dye, IR700DX, activated by NIR light. Although CD44 is surface cancer marker associated with drug resistance, anti-CD44-IR700 NIR-PIT results in inhibited cell growth and prolonged survival in multiple tumor types. Meanwhile, anti-CD25-IR700-targeted NIR-PIT has been reported to achieve selective and local depletion of FOXP3+CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are primary immunosuppressive cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME), resulting in activation of local antitumor immunity. Combined NIR-PIT with CD44- and CD25-targeted agents has the potential to directly eliminate tumor cells and also amplify the immune response by removing FOXP3+CD25+CD4+ Tregs from the TME. We investigated the difference in therapeutic effects of CD44-targeted NIR-PIT alone, CD25-targeted NIR-PIT alone, and the combination of CD44- and CD25-targeted NIR-PIT in several syngeneic tumor models, including MC38-luc, LL/2, and MOC1. The combined NIR-PIT showed significant tumor growth inhibition and prolonged survival compared with CD44-targeted NIR-PIT alone in all tumor models and showed prolonged survival compared with CD25-targeted NIR-PIT alone in MC38-luc and LL/2 tumors. Combined CD44/CD25 NIR-PIT also resulted in some complete remissions, whereas this was not achieved with either type of NIR-PIT alone. Therefore, combined NIR-PIT simultaneously targeting cancer antigens and immunosuppressive cells in the TME may be more effective than either type of NIR-PIT alone and may have potential to induce prolonged immune responses in treated tumors.