- 作者列表："Magdziak A","Szlak J","Mróz A","Wieszczy P","Zagórowicz E
:Objectives: In severe ulcerative colitis (UC) bowel biopsy is recommended to detect the cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection capable of complicating the course of the disease. Histopathology with immunohistochemistry (IHC) is time-consuming, and a blood polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for CMV DNA is used as an alternative, notwithstanding nothing more than a moderate correlation between the two. We aimed to detect CMV DNA in the stools of patients with active UC, and to compare the results with CMV IHC in bowel biopsies.Materials and methods: Measurement of CMV DNA in stools (copies/ml) entailed PCR, while biopsies assessed inflammation activity (Geboes scale), as well as counts of numbers of CMV IHC-positive cells/biopsy. The severity of UC was assessed using the Mayo score, stool calprotectin and concentrations of C-reactive protein in the blood.Results: 89 of the above pairs of tests for CMV were performed among 75 patients. CMV was detected in 36/89 stool specimens and 19/89 bowel biopsies. The sensitivity of the stool-CMV PCR was thus 84.7%, while specificity was of 71.4%. The negative predictive value was 94.3% and the positive predictive value 44.4%. No difference in the severity of UC was noted between the stool CMV DNA positive and negative groups. Similarly, there was no difference in the severity of UC between the CMV IHC positive and negative groups, except for the Geboes score, more often found to be higher in CMV IHC-positive patients (p = .002).Conclusions: CMV DNA was detected in the stools of 40.4% of patients with active UC. A negative test result may help to exclude bowel CMV disease.
: 目标: 在重度溃疡性结肠炎 (ulcerative colitis，UC) 肠活检建议检测巨细胞病毒 (CMV) 感染能够合并疾病的进程.免疫组织化学 (IHC) 的组织病理学是耗时的，使用 CMV DNA 的血液聚合酶链反应 (PCR) 作为替代，尽管两者之间没有中度相关性。我们旨在检测活动性 UC 患者粪便中的 CMV DNA，并将结果与肠道活检中的 CMV IHC 进行比较。材料和方法: 粪便中 CMV DNA 的测量 (拷贝/ml) 需要 PCR，而活检评估炎症活性 (Geboes 量表),以及 CMV IHC 阳性细胞/活检的数量计数。采用 Mayo 评分、粪便钙卫蛋白和血液中 C 反应蛋白浓度评估 UC 的严重程度。结果: 在 75 例患者中进行了上述 89 对 CMV 检测。在 36/89 份粪便标本和 19/89 份肠道活检标本中检测到 CMV。粪便 CMV PCR 的敏感性为 84.7%，特异性为 71.4%。阴性预测值为 94.3%，阳性预测值为 44.4%。粪便 CMV DNA 阳性组和阴性组 UC 的严重程度无差异。同样，CMV IHC 阳性组和阴性组之间 UC 的严重程度没有差异，除了 Geboes 评分,在 CMV IHC 阳性患者中更常发现较高 (p =.002)。结论: 40.4% 的活动期 UC 患者粪便中检出 CMV DNA。检测结果阴性可能有助于排除肠 CMV 病。
METHODS::Chronic diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) urgently need new biomarkers as a significant proportion of patients, do not respond to current medications. Inflammation is a common factor in these diseases and microbial sensing in the intestinal tract is critical to initiate the inflammation. We have identified ELMO1 (Engulfment and Cell Motility Protein-1) as a microbial sensor in epithelial and phagocytic cells that turns on inflammatory signals. Using a stem-cell-based "gut-in-a-dish" coculture model, we studied the interactions between microbes, epithelium and monocytes in the context of IBD. To mimic the in-vivo cell physiology, enteroid-derived monolayers (EDMs) were generated from the organoids isolated from WT and ELMO1-/- mice and colonic biopsies of IBD patients. The EDMs were infected with the IBD-associated microbes to monitor the inflammatory responses. ELMO1-depleted EDMs displayed a significant reduction in bacterial internalization, a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine productions and monocyte recruitment. The expression of ELMO1 is elevated in the colonic epithelium and in the inflammatory infiltrates within the lamina propria of IBD patients where the higher expression is positively correlated with the elevated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, MCP-1 and TNF-α. MCP-1 is released from the epithelium and recruits monocytes to the site of inflammation. Once recruited, monocytes require ELMO1 to engulf the bacteria and propagate a robust TNF-α storm. These findings highlight that the dysregulated epithelial ELMO1→MCP-1 axis can serve as an early biomarker in the diagnostics of IBD and other inflammatory disorders.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Peripheral blood eosinophilia (PBE) is a biomarker of an aggressive multiyear natural history in adults with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Additionally, PBE at diagnosis is associated with higher disease activity in pediatric-onset IBD. We sought to determine if PBE can function as a biomarker of long-term disease severity in pediatric-onset IBD patients who are followed into adulthood. METHODS:We analyzed a consented, prospective, natural history IBD registry at an adult tertiary center from 2009 to 2018. Prevalence of PBE was evaluated in both pediatric- and adult-onset IBD patients. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and health care utilization data were compared in patients with and without PBE. RESULTS:Among 2800 adult IBD patients, 23.4% had pediatric-onset disease. PBE was found in 34% of the pediatric-onset patients compared with 26.8% of the adult-onset IBD patients (P < 0.001). In the pediatric-onset IBD cohort, PBE was associated with higher rates of allergies (P < 0.0001), but not of asthma, allergic rhinitis, or primary sclerosing cholangitis. In the adult IBD patients with pediatric-onset disease, PBE was associated with higher rates of C-reactive protein elevation (P < 0.0001), erythrocyte sedimentation rate elevation (P < 0.0001), higher health care utilization, and higher average health care charges per year (P < 0.00001). CONCLUSIONS:Peripheral blood eosinophilia was more prevalent in adult IBD patients with pediatric-onset compared with adult-onset disease. Among all IBD patients with long-term follow-up, PBE defined a subgroup with more severe illness. These data suggest that PBE may be a biomarker for a high-risk subgroup with high cost trajectory and long-term severity in pediatric-onset IBD that persists into adulthood.
METHODS::Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic inflammatory disorders with a complex pathogenesis, affecting people of all ages. They are characterized by alternating phases of clinical relapse and remission, depending on the fine balance between immune cells and the gut microbiota. The cross talk between cells of the immune system and the gut microbiota can result in either tolerance or inflammation, according to multifactorial triggers, ranging from environmental factors to genetic susceptibility. Glucocorticoid (GC) administration remains the first-line treatment for IBDs, although long-term use is limited by development of serious adverse effects. Recently, new alternative pharmacological therapies have been developed, although these are not always effective in IBD patients. There is a constant demand for effective new drug targets to guarantee total remission and improve the quality of life for IBD patients. The glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) has been implicated as a promising candidate for this purpose, in view of its powerful anti-inflammatory effects that mimic those of GCs while avoiding their unwanted adverse reactions. Here we present and discuss the latest findings about the involvement of GILZ in IBDs.