OEA 的抗炎和免疫调节作用限制 DSS 诱导的小鼠结肠炎。
- 作者列表："Lama A","Provensi G","Amoriello R","Pirozzi C","Rani B","Mollica MP","Raso GM","Ballerini C","Meli R","Passani MB
:Fatty acid ethanolamides acting on proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α are among the endogenous lipid molecules that attenuate inflammatory processes and pain sensitivity. Whereas these properties are well-known for palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), the efficacy of oleoylethanolamide (OEA, first described as a satiety hormone synthesized in the jejunum) has been overlooked. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of OEA administration in a mouse model of colitis. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2.5% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in drinking water for 5 days. Daily i.p. administration of 10 mg/kg OEA started 3 days before DSS and lasted for 12 days. The DSS-untreated control group received only ultrapure water. DSS mice treated with OEA had a significant improvement of disease score. OEA restored mRNA transcription of PPAR-α, of tight junctions and protective factors of colon integrity disrupted by DSS. The improvement correlated with significant decrease of colonic and systemic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to the DSS group. OEA antiinflammatory effects were mediated by the selective targeting of the TLR4 axis causing a downstream inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)- MyD88-dependent and NLRP3 inflammation pathways. OEA treatment also inhibited DSS-induced increase of inflammatory cytokines levels in the mesenteric lymph nodes. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These results underscore the validity of OEA as a potent protective and anti-inflammatory agent in ulcerative colitis that may be exploited to broaden the pharmacological strategies against inflammatory bowel disease.
脂肪酸乙醇酰胺作用于增殖物激活受体（PPAR）-α是内源性脂质分子之一，可减轻炎症过程和疼痛敏感性。尽管棕榈酰乙醇酰胺（PEA）的这些特性是众所周知的，但油酰乙醇酰胺（OEA，最初被描述为空肠中合成的一种饱腹激素）的功效却被忽视了。在这项研究中，我们旨在评估OEA给药对小鼠结肠炎模型的影响。C57BL/6J小鼠饮用2.5%葡聚糖硫酸钠（DSS）5天。每日静脉注射10 mg/kg OEA，开始于DSS前3天，持续12天。DSS未处理对照组仅给予超纯水。ea对DSS小鼠的疾病评分有显著改善。OEA恢复了DSS破坏的PPAR-α、紧密连接和结肠完整性保护因子的mRNA转录。与DSS组相比，这种改善与结肠和全身促炎细胞因子水平显著降低有关。OEA抗炎作用通过选择性靶向TLR4轴介导，导致核因子-卡帕B（NF-κB）-MyD88依赖性和NLRP3炎症途径的下游抑制。OEA治疗也抑制DSS诱导的肠系膜淋巴结炎性细胞因子水平的升高。结论和意义：这些结果强调了OEA作为溃疡性结肠炎有效的保护和抗炎药物的有效性，这可能被用来拓宽炎症性肠病的药理学策略。
METHODS::Chronic diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) urgently need new biomarkers as a significant proportion of patients, do not respond to current medications. Inflammation is a common factor in these diseases and microbial sensing in the intestinal tract is critical to initiate the inflammation. We have identified ELMO1 (Engulfment and Cell Motility Protein-1) as a microbial sensor in epithelial and phagocytic cells that turns on inflammatory signals. Using a stem-cell-based "gut-in-a-dish" coculture model, we studied the interactions between microbes, epithelium and monocytes in the context of IBD. To mimic the in-vivo cell physiology, enteroid-derived monolayers (EDMs) were generated from the organoids isolated from WT and ELMO1-/- mice and colonic biopsies of IBD patients. The EDMs were infected with the IBD-associated microbes to monitor the inflammatory responses. ELMO1-depleted EDMs displayed a significant reduction in bacterial internalization, a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine productions and monocyte recruitment. The expression of ELMO1 is elevated in the colonic epithelium and in the inflammatory infiltrates within the lamina propria of IBD patients where the higher expression is positively correlated with the elevated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, MCP-1 and TNF-α. MCP-1 is released from the epithelium and recruits monocytes to the site of inflammation. Once recruited, monocytes require ELMO1 to engulf the bacteria and propagate a robust TNF-α storm. These findings highlight that the dysregulated epithelial ELMO1→MCP-1 axis can serve as an early biomarker in the diagnostics of IBD and other inflammatory disorders.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Peripheral blood eosinophilia (PBE) is a biomarker of an aggressive multiyear natural history in adults with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Additionally, PBE at diagnosis is associated with higher disease activity in pediatric-onset IBD. We sought to determine if PBE can function as a biomarker of long-term disease severity in pediatric-onset IBD patients who are followed into adulthood. METHODS:We analyzed a consented, prospective, natural history IBD registry at an adult tertiary center from 2009 to 2018. Prevalence of PBE was evaluated in both pediatric- and adult-onset IBD patients. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and health care utilization data were compared in patients with and without PBE. RESULTS:Among 2800 adult IBD patients, 23.4% had pediatric-onset disease. PBE was found in 34% of the pediatric-onset patients compared with 26.8% of the adult-onset IBD patients (P < 0.001). In the pediatric-onset IBD cohort, PBE was associated with higher rates of allergies (P < 0.0001), but not of asthma, allergic rhinitis, or primary sclerosing cholangitis. In the adult IBD patients with pediatric-onset disease, PBE was associated with higher rates of C-reactive protein elevation (P < 0.0001), erythrocyte sedimentation rate elevation (P < 0.0001), higher health care utilization, and higher average health care charges per year (P < 0.00001). CONCLUSIONS:Peripheral blood eosinophilia was more prevalent in adult IBD patients with pediatric-onset compared with adult-onset disease. Among all IBD patients with long-term follow-up, PBE defined a subgroup with more severe illness. These data suggest that PBE may be a biomarker for a high-risk subgroup with high cost trajectory and long-term severity in pediatric-onset IBD that persists into adulthood.
METHODS::Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic inflammatory disorders with a complex pathogenesis, affecting people of all ages. They are characterized by alternating phases of clinical relapse and remission, depending on the fine balance between immune cells and the gut microbiota. The cross talk between cells of the immune system and the gut microbiota can result in either tolerance or inflammation, according to multifactorial triggers, ranging from environmental factors to genetic susceptibility. Glucocorticoid (GC) administration remains the first-line treatment for IBDs, although long-term use is limited by development of serious adverse effects. Recently, new alternative pharmacological therapies have been developed, although these are not always effective in IBD patients. There is a constant demand for effective new drug targets to guarantee total remission and improve the quality of life for IBD patients. The glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) has been implicated as a promising candidate for this purpose, in view of its powerful anti-inflammatory effects that mimic those of GCs while avoiding their unwanted adverse reactions. Here we present and discuss the latest findings about the involvement of GILZ in IBDs.