Maternal prenatal thyroid function and trajectories of offspring emotional and behavioural problems: findings from the ALSPAC cohort
母体产前甲状腺功能和后代情绪和行为问题的轨迹: ALSPAC 队列的研究结果
- 作者列表："Fetene, Dagnachew Muluye","Betts, Kim S.","Scott, James G.","Alati, Rosa
Maternal thyroid hormone may have impact on fetal brain development and consequently lead to offspring mental health problems. This study examined the role of maternal prenatal thyroid function on trajectories of offspring emotional and behavioural problems. Data were taken from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. A total of 4839 mother–child pairs were included. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) were assessed during the first trimester of pregnancy. Childhood emotional and behavioural problems were assessed using the Strengths and difficulties questionnaire. A group-based modelling approach was used to identify the different trajectories of offspring emotional and behavioural problems reported by parents over four waves of measurement at age 3.5 (42 months), 6.75 (81 months), 9 and 11 years. Multinomial logistic regression was then used to test for an association between hormone levels and class membership. We identified four trajectories of offspring emotional and behavioural problems; normative-decreasing (49.7%), moderate-decreasing (35.7%), moderate-static (8.4%), and high-decreasing (6.2%) trajectory. There were no significant differences in the mean values of mother’s FT4, TSH, and the proportion of mothers with positive TPO-Ab between trajectories. Univariable and multivariable multinomial logistic models showed no association between maternal thyroid function (FT4, TSH, and TPO-Ab) and the trajectories of offspring emotional and behavioural problems. The results of our study show that maternal thyroid parameters in a community population are not associated with trajectories of offspring emotional and behavioural problems.
母体甲状腺激素可能影响胎儿大脑发育，从而导致后代精神卫生问题。本研究检测了母体产前甲状腺功能对后代情绪和行为问题轨迹的作用。数据取自 Avon 父母和孩子的纵向研究。共纳入 4839 对母子。在妊娠早期评估促甲状腺激素 (TSH) 水平、游离甲状腺素 (FT4) 和甲状腺过氧化物酶抗体 (TPO-Ab)。使用优势和困难问卷评估儿童情绪和行为问题。采用基于群体的建模方法，确定父母在 3.5 岁 (42 个月) 四波测量中报告的后代情绪和行为问题的不同轨迹,6.75 (81 个月) 、 9 和 11 年。然后使用多项逻辑回归来检验激素水平和类别成员之间的关联。我们确定了后代情绪和行为问题的四个轨迹; 规范下降 (49.7%) 、中度下降 (35.7%) 、中度静态 (8.4%) 和高下降 (6.2%) 轨迹。轨迹间母亲的 FT4 、 TSH 平均值和 TPO-Ab 阳性母亲的比例差异无统计学意义。单变量和多变量多项 logistic 模型显示母亲甲状腺功能 (FT4 、 TSH 和 TPO-Ab) 与后代情绪和行为问题的轨迹无相关性。我们的研究结果表明，社区人群中的母体甲状腺参数与后代情绪和行为问题的轨迹无关。
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:To assess the prevalence of Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) in primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) and whether it differs between mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). METHODS:Electronic databases were searched for studies assessing HT prevalence in PTL, based on antithyroid antibodies, clinical history, or pathology. Pooled prevalence of HT and its association with histotype (MALT or DLBCL) were calculated. RESULTS:Thirty-eight studies with 1,346 PTLs were included. Pooled prevalence results were 78.9% (any HT evidence), 65.3% (antithyroid antibodies), 41.7% (clinical history), and 64% (pathology). HT prevalence was significantly higher in MALT lymphoma than in DLBCL (P = .007) and in mixed DLBCL/MALT than in pure DLBCL (P = .002). CONCLUSIONS:Overall, 78.9% of patients with PTL have any HT evidence, but only half of these had been clinically followed. The difference in HT prevalence suggests that a subset of DLBCL may not derive from MALT lymphoma.
METHODS:Background Whether chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) influences the risk of development and the progression of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) remains uncertain. We investigated the effects of CLT on the clinicopathologic features and prognosis of PTC. Methods Two thousand nine hundred twenty-eight consecutive patients with PTC treated between 2009 and 2017 were divided into two groups: one with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and one without; 1174 (40%) of the patients had coincident CLT. Results In univariate analysis, CLT correlated positively with small tumor size, frequent extrathyroidal extension, multifocal diseases, and p53 but negatively with central lymph node (LN) metastasis and BRAF mutation. In multivariate analysis, CLT was associated with extrathyroidal extension and multifocal disease; however, it was not a prognostic factor for recurrence even though it was associated with two aggressive factors. Compared with patients with PTC alone, there were more retrieved central LNs in the PTC + CLT group, and these patients also underwent more invasive diagnostic tests such as fine needle aspiration cytology and frozen biopsy of LN. Conclusions The CLT patients with PTC had better behavior features and prognoses than did those with PTC alone despite frequent multifocality and extrathyroidal extension. However, precaution may be necessary to avoid performing invasive diagnostic procedures for lateral LN metastasis and to manage the patients appropriately.
METHODS::PTPN2 is one of the members of the protein Tyrosine Phosphatases (PTPs) family. To explore the promotive effect of upregulated PTPN2 induced by inflammatory response or oxidative stress on the progression of thyroid cancer. PTPN2 level in thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines was detected. Kaplan-Meier method was applied for evaluating the prognostic value of PTPN2 in thyroid cancer patients. After stimulation of inflammatory response (treatment of IFN-γ and TNF-α), or oxidative stress (treatment of H2O2), protein level of PTPN2 in K1 cells was measured by Western blot. Regulatory effects of PTPN2 on EdU-positive staining and Ki-67 positive cell ratio in K1 cells either with H2O2 stimulation or not were determined. PTPN2 was upregulated in thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines. Its level was higher in metastatic thyroid cancer patients than those of non-metastatic ones. High level of PTPN2 predicted worse prognosis of thyroid cancer. Treatment of either IFN-γ or TNF-α upregulated protein level of PTPN2 in K1 cells. Meanwhile, H2O2 stimulation upregulated PTPN2, which was reversed by NAC administration. With the stimulation of increased doses of H2O2, EdU-positive staining and Ki-67 positive cell ratio were dose-dependently elevated. Silence of PTPN2 attenuated proliferative ability and Ki-67 expression in K1 cells either with H2O2 stimulation or not. Inflammatory response or oxidative stress induces upregulation of PTPN2, thus promoting the progression of thyroid cancer.