Undifferentiated Endometrial Carcinoma Arising in the Background of High-Grade Endometrial Carcinoma - Expanding the Definition of Dedifferentiated Endometrial Carcinoma.
- 作者列表："Busca A","Parra-Herran C","Nofech-Mozes S","Djordjevic B","Ismiil N","Cesari M","Nucci MR","Mirkovic J
:Dedifferentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma (DEC) is defined by the coexistence of undifferentiated carcinoma with low-grade (FIGO grade 1 or 2) endometrioid carcinoma. Few cases of DEC arising in the background of high-grade carcinoma (DEC-HG) have been reported, however, this phenomenon is poorly characterized. In this study we describe the morphologic, immunohistochemical and clinico-pathologic characteristics of DEC-HG. 18 DECs were diagnosed at our institution between 2008-2019, and in 11 (61%), the undifferentiated component was associated with high-grade carcinoma (8 endometrioid FIGO grade 3, 2 with ambiguous features, 1 serous). The remaining 7 (39%) represented DEC-LG (3 FIGO grade 1 and 4 FIGO grade 2). 7/11 (64%) patients with DEC-HG presented with advanced stage (FIGO stage III/IV), whereas most with DEC-LG (6/7, 86%) were stage I. On follow up, 2 patients in the DEC-HG group died of disease and 2 had progressive disease within 2 months of surgery. There was only one recurrence in the DEC-LG, 6 months post-surgery. The DEC component in both groups showed similar morphology and immunophenotype, with predominantly focal or complete loss of expression of pan-keratin, EMA, E-cadherin, CK8/18, PAX8 and ER. The DEC component in the DEC-HG group had wild-type p53 expression in 8/11 (73%) cases, loss of MLH1 and PMS2 in 6/11 (55%) and loss of SMARCA4 in 3/9 (33%). Although numbers are small, we show that DEC-HG is a previously under-recognized phenomenon, with morphologic and immunophenotypic similarities to DEC-LG, which supports expanding the definition of DEC to include DEC-HG. DEC-HG may be more aggressive than DEC-LG.
: 去分化子宫内膜腺癌 (DEC) 定义为未分化癌与低级别 (FIGO 1 级或 2 级) 子宫内膜样癌共存。在高级别癌 (DEC-HG) 背景下出现的 DEC 病例很少被报道，然而，这种现象的特征很差。本研究描述了 DEC-HG 的形态学、免疫组织化学和临床病理特征。我们机构在 2008-2019 之间诊断了 18 个 DECs，在 11 个 (61%) 中，未分化成分与高级别癌相关 (8 个子宫内膜样 FIGO 3 级,2 具有模棱两可的特征，1 浆液性)。其余 7 人 (39%) 代表 DEC-LG (3 FIGO 1 级和 4 FIGO 2 级)。7/11 (64%) DEC-HG 患者表现为晚期 (FIGO 分期 III/IV 期)，而大多数 DEC-LG 患者 (6/7，86%) 为 I 期。随访，DEC-HG 组 2 例死于疾病，2 例在手术 2 个月内疾病进展。在术后 6 个月的 DEC-LG 中只有 1 例复发。两组 DEC 成分形态和免疫表型相似，主要是泛角蛋白、 EMA 、 E-cadherin 、 CK8/18 、 PAX8 和 ER 的局灶性或完全表达缺失。DEC-HG 组 DEC 组分野生型 p53 表达 8/11 (73%)，MLH1 和 PMS2 缺失 6/11 (55%) 和 SMARCA4 的损失在 3/9 (33%)。虽然数量较少，但我们发现 DEC-HG 是一种以前认识不足的现象，与 DEC-LG 在形态学和免疫表型上有相似之处,这支持扩展 DEC 的定义以包括 DEC-HG。DEC-HG 可能比 DEC-LG 更具侵略性。
METHODS:STUDY OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the differences in perioperative outcomes and immediate complication rates between laparoscopic myomectomy for submucous myomas and laparoscopic myomectomy for myomas in other locations. DESIGN:Retrospective cohort study. SETTING:University-affiliated hospital in London. PATIENTS:A total of 350 patients with symptomatic uterine myomas underwent laparoscopic myomectomy. Thirty-three of these were performed for submucous myomas (group 1), and 317 were for myomas in other uterine locations (group 2). INTERVENTIONS:Analysis of prospectively collected data on patient demographics, myoma characteristics, perioperative outcomes, and immediate complications. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Patient demographics, including age, body mass index, and parity, were similar in the 2 groups. No significant differences in myoma characteristics were seen between groups 1 and 2, including the mean dimension of largest myoma (7.1 vs 7.8 cm, respectively; p = .35), mean number of myomas removed (3.8 vs 4.1; p = .665), and mean mass of myomas removed (142.0 g vs 227.3 g; p = .186). There were also no significant between-group differences in any perioperative outcomes, including mean blood loss (226.8 mL vs 266.4 mL; p = .373), duration of surgery (103 minutes vs 113 minutes; p = .264), and duration of hospital stay (1.4 days vs 1.7 days; p = .057). No complications arose from laparoscopic resection of submucous myomas. CONCLUSION:Laparoscopic myomectomy for submucous myomas has similar perioperative outcomes and immediate complications as laparoscopic myomectomy for other myomas and can be considered for large or type 2 submucous myomas.
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:Laparoscopic myomectomy can be difficult when fibroids are large and numerous. This may result in extensive intraoperative bleeding and the need for a conversion to a laparotomy. Medical pretreatment prior to surgery might reduce these risks by decreasing fibroid size and vascularization of the fibroid. We compared pretreatment with ulipristal acetate (UPA) vs gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) prior to laparoscopic myomectomy on several intra- and postoperative outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS:We performed a non-inferiority double-blind randomized controlled trial in nine hospitals in the Netherlands. Women were randomized between daily oral UPA for 12 weeks and single placebo injection or single intramuscular injection with leuprolide acetate and daily placebo tablets for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was intraoperative blood loss. Secondary outcomes were reduction of fibroid volume, suturing time, total surgery time and surgical ease. RESULTS:Thirty women received UPA and 25 women leuprolide acetate. Non-inferiority of UPA regarding intraoperative blood loss was not demonstrated. When pretreated with UPA, median intraoperative blood loss was statistically significantly higher (525 mL [348-1025] vs 280 mL[100-500]; P = 0.011) and suturing time of the first fibroid was statistically significantly longer (40 minutes [28-48] vs 22 minutes [14-33]; P = 0.003) compared with GnRHa. Pretreatment with UPA showed smaller reduction in fibroid volume preoperatively compared with GnRHa (-7.2% [-35.5 to 54.1] vs -38.4% [-71.5 to -19.3]; P = 0.001). Laparoscopic myomectomies in women pretreated with UPA were subjectively judged more difficult than in women pretreated with GnRHa. CONCLUSIONS:Non-inferiority of UPA in terms of intraoperative blood loss could not be established, possibly due to the preliminary termination of the study. Pretreatment with GnRHa was more favorable than UPA in terms of fibroid volume reduction, intraoperative blood loss, hemoglobin drop directly postoperatively, suturing time of the first fibroid and several subjective surgical ease parameters.
METHODS:AIMS:Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) syndrome is caused by germline mutations in the Fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. In young women, the syndrome often presents with symptomatic uterine leiomyomas, leading to myomectomy or hysterectomy. In this study, we aimed to investigate the incidence and mutational profiles of FH-negative leiomyomas from young patients, thus allowing for early identification and triage of syndromic patients for surveillance. METHODS AND RESULTS:We evaluated 153 cases of uterine leiomyomas from women aged up to 30 years for loss of FH expression by tissue microarray (TMA)-based immunohistochemical staining. Mutational analysis of tumours with loss of FH was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of 10 exons within the FH gene and subsequent Sanger sequencing. The status of promoter methylation was assessed by bisulphite sequencing. Loss of FH protein expression was detected in seven (4.6%) of 153 tested uterine leiomyomas from young patients. All FH-negative leiomyomas displayed staghorn vasculature and fibrillary/neurophil-like cytoplasm. We found that six (86%) of seven FH-negative tumours detected by immunohistochemistry harboured FH mutations, 50% of which contained germline mutations. In particular, the germline mutational rate in FH gene was 2.0% (three of 153 cases). Bisulphite sequencing analysis failed to detect promoter methylation in any of the seven tumours. CONCLUSION:Our study showed a relatively high rate of FH germline mutation in FH-negative uterine leiomyomas from patients aged up to 30 years. While genetic mutations confer protein expression loss, epigenetic regulation of the FH gene appears to be unrelated to this phenotype.