What's new in bone forming tumours of the skeleton?
- 作者列表："Franceschini N","Lam SW","Cleton-Jansen AM","Bovée JVMG
:Bone tumours are difficult to diagnose and treat, as they are rare and over 60 different subtypes are recognised. The emergence of next-generation sequencing has partly elucidated the molecular mechanisms behind these tumours, including the group of bone forming tumours (osteoma, osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma and osteosarcoma). Increased knowledge on the molecular mechanism could help to identify novel diagnostic markers and/or treatment options. Osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma are bone forming tumours without malignant potential that have overlapping morphology. They were recently shown to carry FOS and-to a lesser extent-FOSB rearrangements suggesting that these tumours are closely related. The presence of these rearrangements could help discriminate these entities from other lesions with woven bone deposition. Osteosarcoma is a malignant bone forming tumour for which different histological subtypes are recognised. High-grade osteosarcoma is the prototype of a complex karyotype tumour, and extensive research exploring its molecular background has identified phenomena like chromothripsis and kataegis and some recurrent alterations. Due to lack of specificity, this has not led to a valuable novel diagnostic marker so far. Nevertheless, these studies have also pointed towards potential targetable drivers of which the therapeutic merit remains to be further explored.
: 骨肿瘤很难诊断和治疗，因为它们很罕见，超过 60 种不同的亚型被识别。新一代测序的出现部分阐明了这些肿瘤背后的分子机制，包括骨形成肿瘤组 (骨瘤、骨样骨瘤、骨母细胞瘤和骨肉瘤)。增加对分子机制的了解有助于确定新的诊断标志物和/或治疗方案。骨样骨瘤和骨母细胞瘤是形态重叠的无恶性潜能的骨形成性肿瘤。它们最近被证明携带FOS和-在较小程度上-FOSB重排，表明这些肿瘤密切相关。这些重排的存在有助于区分这些实体与其他有编织骨沉积的病变。骨肉瘤是一种恶性骨形成肿瘤，不同的组织学亚型是公认的。高级别骨肉瘤是复杂核型肿瘤的原型，探索其分子背景的广泛研究已经确定了像色斑和kataegis等现象和一些复发性改变。由于缺乏特异性，迄今为止这还没有导致一个有价值的新型诊断标志物。尽管如此，这些研究也指出了潜在的可靶向驱动因素，其治疗价值仍有待进一步探讨。
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Large inoperable sacral chordomas show unsatisfactory local control rates even when treated with high dose proton therapy (PT). The aim of this study is assessing feasibility and reporting early results of patients treated with PT and concomitant hyperthermia (HT). METHODS: :Patients had histologically proven unresectable sacral chordomas and received 70 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) in 2.5 Gy fractions with concomitant weekly HT. Toxicity was assessed according to CTCAE_v4. A volumetric tumor response analysis was performed. RESULTS: :Five patients were treated with the combined approach. Median baseline tumor volume was 735 cc (range, 369-1142). All patients completed PT and received a median of 5 HT sessions (range, 2-6). Median follow-up was 18 months (range, 9-26). The volumetric analysis showed an objective response of all tumors (median shrinkage 46%; range, 9-72). All patients experienced acute Grade 2-3 local pain. One patient presented with a late Grade 3 iliac fracture. CONCLUSION:Combining PT and HT in large inoperable sacral chordomas is feasible and causes acceptable toxicity. Volumetric analysis shows promising early results, warranting confirmation in the framework of a prospective trial. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: :This is an encouraging first report of the feasibility and early results of concomitant HT and PT in treating inoperable sacral chordoma.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:National guidelines recommend screening and treatment for cancer-related bone disease and continued monitoring of bone-modifying agents. It is unclear whether a standardized screening tool is utilized to identify eligible patients and ensure appropriate supportive care is implemented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate current prescribing practices and optimize management of bone-modifying agents. METHODS:A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients who received hormone deprivation therapy or had bone metastases through Hematology/Oncology or Urology clinics from 1 November 2016 to 31 October 2017. The primary endpoints of this study were the incidence of completed baseline dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan for patients on hormone deprivation therapy and percent of patients started on a bone-modifying agent for the prevention of skeletal-related events secondary to bone metastasis. Secondary endpoints included percent of patients with dental examinations prior to initiation, adequate calcium and vitamin D supplementation, incidence of osteonecrosis of the jaw or flu-like symptoms and education, and percent of bisphosphonate doses appropriately adjusted based on renal function. RESULTS:A total of 375 patients were assessed for baseline DEXA scans and bone-modifying therapy. Of the 226 patients on hormone deprivation therapy, 111 (49%) patients were appropriately screened with a DEXA scan prior to initiation of hormone deprivation therapy. Among the 149 patients with bone metastases, only 94 (63.1%) patients were started on a bone-modifying agent. CONCLUSIONS:Opportunities have been identified to optimize management of patients with cancer-related bone disease. Implementation of standardized tools may increase the rate of appropriate screening and initiation of bone-modifying therapy when warranted.
METHODS:PURPOSE:Low skeletal muscle mass has been associated with poor prognosis in patients with advanced lung cancer. However, little is known about the relationship between skeletal muscle mass and overall survival in patients with bone metastases from lung cancer. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of low trunk muscle mass in predicting overall survival in these patients. METHODS:The data from 198 patients who were diagnosed with bone metastases from lung cancer from April 2009 to May 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. The areas of the psoas and paravertebral muscles were measured at the level of the third lumbar vertebra on computed tomography scans taken at the time nearest to the diagnosis of bone metastasis. Muscle area was evaluated for male and female cohorts separately using different cutoff points. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to evaluate the factors independently associated with overall survival. RESULTS:The overall survival of patients in the lowest quartile for psoas muscle area or paravertebral muscle area was significantly shorter than that of patients above the 25th percentile for muscle area (p < 0.001). Multivariate analyses showed that paravertebral muscle mass (hazard ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.56; p = 0.006), epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted therapy, and performance status were independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS:Low paravertebral muscle mass was associated with shorter survival, independently of known prognostic factors.