Can Osteoblastoma Evolve to Malignancy? A Challenge in the Decision-Making Process of a Benign Spine Tumor.
- 作者列表："Mesfin A","Boriani S","Gambarotti M","Bandiera S","Gasbarrini A
BACKGROUND:Osteoblastoma is a rare benign aggressive tumor, with one third occurring in the spine. Conversion of osteoblastoma to osteosarcoma is uncommon, and histologically proven conversion has been rarely reported. CASE DESCRIPTION:Cases of 2 patients with rare occurrences of spinal osteoblastomas recurring and transforming into osteosarcomas are presented. Initial presentation, treatment, imaging, and histology findings are described. The outcomes of the patients following surgical intervention for histologically diagnosed osteoblastoma with subsequent transformation to osteosarcoma and relative management are described. A literature review of osteoblastoma converting to osteosarcoma also is provided. CONCLUSIONS:The rare occurrence of osteoblastoma converting to osteosarcoma imparts several lessons, including performing Enneking appropriate surgery for benign aggressive tumors (Enneking stage 3) and always performing a biopsy, particularly at the time of recurrence if imaging is not pathognomonic for a benign primary spine tumor.
背景: 骨母细胞瘤是一种罕见的良性侵袭性肿瘤，3分之1 发生于脊柱。骨母细胞瘤转化为骨肉瘤并不常见，组织学证实的转化鲜有报道。 病例描述: 2 例罕见的脊柱成骨细胞瘤复发并转化为骨肉瘤。描述了初步表现、治疗、影像学和组织学表现。描述了组织学诊断的骨母细胞瘤的手术干预后患者的结局，随后转化为骨肉瘤并进行相关处理。还提供了骨母细胞瘤转化为骨肉瘤的文献综述。 结论: 骨母细胞瘤转化为骨肉瘤的罕见发生带来了一些教训，包括对良性侵袭性肿瘤进行适当的Enneking手术 (Enneking 3 期)，并始终进行活检，特别是在复发时，如果影像学检查不是良性原发性脊柱肿瘤的病理学依据。
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Large inoperable sacral chordomas show unsatisfactory local control rates even when treated with high dose proton therapy (PT). The aim of this study is assessing feasibility and reporting early results of patients treated with PT and concomitant hyperthermia (HT). METHODS: :Patients had histologically proven unresectable sacral chordomas and received 70 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) in 2.5 Gy fractions with concomitant weekly HT. Toxicity was assessed according to CTCAE_v4. A volumetric tumor response analysis was performed. RESULTS: :Five patients were treated with the combined approach. Median baseline tumor volume was 735 cc (range, 369-1142). All patients completed PT and received a median of 5 HT sessions (range, 2-6). Median follow-up was 18 months (range, 9-26). The volumetric analysis showed an objective response of all tumors (median shrinkage 46%; range, 9-72). All patients experienced acute Grade 2-3 local pain. One patient presented with a late Grade 3 iliac fracture. CONCLUSION:Combining PT and HT in large inoperable sacral chordomas is feasible and causes acceptable toxicity. Volumetric analysis shows promising early results, warranting confirmation in the framework of a prospective trial. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: :This is an encouraging first report of the feasibility and early results of concomitant HT and PT in treating inoperable sacral chordoma.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:National guidelines recommend screening and treatment for cancer-related bone disease and continued monitoring of bone-modifying agents. It is unclear whether a standardized screening tool is utilized to identify eligible patients and ensure appropriate supportive care is implemented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate current prescribing practices and optimize management of bone-modifying agents. METHODS:A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients who received hormone deprivation therapy or had bone metastases through Hematology/Oncology or Urology clinics from 1 November 2016 to 31 October 2017. The primary endpoints of this study were the incidence of completed baseline dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan for patients on hormone deprivation therapy and percent of patients started on a bone-modifying agent for the prevention of skeletal-related events secondary to bone metastasis. Secondary endpoints included percent of patients with dental examinations prior to initiation, adequate calcium and vitamin D supplementation, incidence of osteonecrosis of the jaw or flu-like symptoms and education, and percent of bisphosphonate doses appropriately adjusted based on renal function. RESULTS:A total of 375 patients were assessed for baseline DEXA scans and bone-modifying therapy. Of the 226 patients on hormone deprivation therapy, 111 (49%) patients were appropriately screened with a DEXA scan prior to initiation of hormone deprivation therapy. Among the 149 patients with bone metastases, only 94 (63.1%) patients were started on a bone-modifying agent. CONCLUSIONS:Opportunities have been identified to optimize management of patients with cancer-related bone disease. Implementation of standardized tools may increase the rate of appropriate screening and initiation of bone-modifying therapy when warranted.
METHODS:PURPOSE:Low skeletal muscle mass has been associated with poor prognosis in patients with advanced lung cancer. However, little is known about the relationship between skeletal muscle mass and overall survival in patients with bone metastases from lung cancer. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of low trunk muscle mass in predicting overall survival in these patients. METHODS:The data from 198 patients who were diagnosed with bone metastases from lung cancer from April 2009 to May 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. The areas of the psoas and paravertebral muscles were measured at the level of the third lumbar vertebra on computed tomography scans taken at the time nearest to the diagnosis of bone metastasis. Muscle area was evaluated for male and female cohorts separately using different cutoff points. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to evaluate the factors independently associated with overall survival. RESULTS:The overall survival of patients in the lowest quartile for psoas muscle area or paravertebral muscle area was significantly shorter than that of patients above the 25th percentile for muscle area (p < 0.001). Multivariate analyses showed that paravertebral muscle mass (hazard ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.56; p = 0.006), epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted therapy, and performance status were independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS:Low paravertebral muscle mass was associated with shorter survival, independently of known prognostic factors.