Combination radium-223 therapies in patients with bone metastases from castration-resistant prostate cancer: A review.
联合镭-223 治疗去势抵抗性前列腺癌骨转移患者: 综述。
- 作者列表："Cursano MC","Iuliani M","Casadei C","Stellato M","Tonini G","Paganelli G","Santini D","De Giorgi U
:Chemotherapeutic agents (docetaxel, cabazitaxel), hormonal therapies (abiraterone, enzalutamide) and radium-223 improve survival in patients with bone metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Combinations of radium-223 with these agents or novel drugs have been investigated in order to improve survival and decrease bone-related morbidity. In mCRPC, clinical and preclinical data indicate that radium-223, abiraterone and enzalutamide have a direct effect on prostate cancer cells and bone microenvironment when administered as single agents. Initial results from studies of radium-223 and abiraterone, enzalutamide or docetaxel demonstrated efficacy without any safety concern in pre-treated mCRPC; however, this safety profile changed when radium-based combination therapies were administered in un-pretreated mCRPC. This review underline the biological rationale for combining radium strategies, investigating their effects on bone in terms of control of skeletal-related events and bone disease progression. The aim is to understand the possible reasons why different radium-based combination treatments can led to different clinical outcomes.
: 化疗药物 (多西他赛、cabazitaxel) 、激素治疗 (阿比特龙、enzalutamide) 和镭-223 可改善骨转移去势抵抗性前列腺癌 (mCRPC) 患者的生存率。已经研究了镭-223 与这些药物或新型药物的组合，以提高生存率和降低骨相关发病率。在mCRPC中，临床和临床前数据表明，镭-223 、阿比特龙和enzalutamide作为单药给药对前列腺癌细胞和骨微环境有直接影响。镭-223 和阿比特龙、enzalutamide或多西他赛研究的初步结果表明，在预处理的mCRPC中没有任何安全性问题; 然而，当在未预处理的mCRPC中给予以镭为基础的联合治疗时，这种安全性特征发生了变化。这篇综述强调了结合镭策略的生物学原理，研究了它们在控制骨骼相关事件和骨骼疾病进展方面对骨骼的影响。目的是了解基于镭的不同联合治疗可导致不同临床结局的可能原因。
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Large inoperable sacral chordomas show unsatisfactory local control rates even when treated with high dose proton therapy (PT). The aim of this study is assessing feasibility and reporting early results of patients treated with PT and concomitant hyperthermia (HT). METHODS: :Patients had histologically proven unresectable sacral chordomas and received 70 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) in 2.5 Gy fractions with concomitant weekly HT. Toxicity was assessed according to CTCAE_v4. A volumetric tumor response analysis was performed. RESULTS: :Five patients were treated with the combined approach. Median baseline tumor volume was 735 cc (range, 369-1142). All patients completed PT and received a median of 5 HT sessions (range, 2-6). Median follow-up was 18 months (range, 9-26). The volumetric analysis showed an objective response of all tumors (median shrinkage 46%; range, 9-72). All patients experienced acute Grade 2-3 local pain. One patient presented with a late Grade 3 iliac fracture. CONCLUSION:Combining PT and HT in large inoperable sacral chordomas is feasible and causes acceptable toxicity. Volumetric analysis shows promising early results, warranting confirmation in the framework of a prospective trial. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: :This is an encouraging first report of the feasibility and early results of concomitant HT and PT in treating inoperable sacral chordoma.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:National guidelines recommend screening and treatment for cancer-related bone disease and continued monitoring of bone-modifying agents. It is unclear whether a standardized screening tool is utilized to identify eligible patients and ensure appropriate supportive care is implemented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate current prescribing practices and optimize management of bone-modifying agents. METHODS:A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients who received hormone deprivation therapy or had bone metastases through Hematology/Oncology or Urology clinics from 1 November 2016 to 31 October 2017. The primary endpoints of this study were the incidence of completed baseline dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan for patients on hormone deprivation therapy and percent of patients started on a bone-modifying agent for the prevention of skeletal-related events secondary to bone metastasis. Secondary endpoints included percent of patients with dental examinations prior to initiation, adequate calcium and vitamin D supplementation, incidence of osteonecrosis of the jaw or flu-like symptoms and education, and percent of bisphosphonate doses appropriately adjusted based on renal function. RESULTS:A total of 375 patients were assessed for baseline DEXA scans and bone-modifying therapy. Of the 226 patients on hormone deprivation therapy, 111 (49%) patients were appropriately screened with a DEXA scan prior to initiation of hormone deprivation therapy. Among the 149 patients with bone metastases, only 94 (63.1%) patients were started on a bone-modifying agent. CONCLUSIONS:Opportunities have been identified to optimize management of patients with cancer-related bone disease. Implementation of standardized tools may increase the rate of appropriate screening and initiation of bone-modifying therapy when warranted.
METHODS:PURPOSE:Low skeletal muscle mass has been associated with poor prognosis in patients with advanced lung cancer. However, little is known about the relationship between skeletal muscle mass and overall survival in patients with bone metastases from lung cancer. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of low trunk muscle mass in predicting overall survival in these patients. METHODS:The data from 198 patients who were diagnosed with bone metastases from lung cancer from April 2009 to May 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. The areas of the psoas and paravertebral muscles were measured at the level of the third lumbar vertebra on computed tomography scans taken at the time nearest to the diagnosis of bone metastasis. Muscle area was evaluated for male and female cohorts separately using different cutoff points. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to evaluate the factors independently associated with overall survival. RESULTS:The overall survival of patients in the lowest quartile for psoas muscle area or paravertebral muscle area was significantly shorter than that of patients above the 25th percentile for muscle area (p < 0.001). Multivariate analyses showed that paravertebral muscle mass (hazard ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.56; p = 0.006), epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted therapy, and performance status were independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS:Low paravertebral muscle mass was associated with shorter survival, independently of known prognostic factors.