- 作者列表："Guo Y","Ngo-Huang AT","Fu JB
:Bones are the third most common site for cancer metastases, and the axial skeleton is the most frequent skeletal location. In a postmortem study, bone metastases were reported in 70% of breast and prostate cancer patients. Bone metastases from breast, lung, prostate, thyroid, and kidney cancers account for 80% of all bone metastases. Bone lesions exist in 60% of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients. With increasing numbers of people who have survived cancer, many patients with cancer and axial skeletal bony metastases will be seen by physical and occupational therapists. Guidelines are lacking on how to perform physical examinations and provide exercise programs for these patients without compromising the diseased spine. In this article, we discuss the available evidence for similar spinal conditions, the biomechanics of spinal load, and changes associated with posture and weight load. We provide recommendations on how to assess a patient's strength, how to strengthen without compromising the diseased spine, and how to teach patients to use correct body mechanics during mobility and activities of daily living.
: 骨骼是癌症转移的第三常见部位，中轴骨骼是最常见的骨骼位置。在一项尸检研究中，70% 的乳腺癌和前列腺癌患者发生了骨转移。乳腺癌、肺癌、前列腺癌、甲状腺癌和肾癌骨转移占所有骨转移的 80%。60% 的新诊断多发性骨髓瘤患者存在骨病变。随着越来越多的癌症患者存活下来，许多癌症和中轴骨转移瘤患者将被物理和职业治疗师看到。缺乏如何在不损害患病脊柱的情况下进行体检和为这些患者提供锻炼计划的指南。在这篇文章中，我们讨论了类似脊柱条件的现有证据，脊柱负荷的生物力学，以及与姿势和重量负荷相关的变化。我们就如何评估患者的力量、如何在不损害患病脊柱的情况下加强以及如何教患者在活动和日常生活活动中使用正确的身体力学提供建议。
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Large inoperable sacral chordomas show unsatisfactory local control rates even when treated with high dose proton therapy (PT). The aim of this study is assessing feasibility and reporting early results of patients treated with PT and concomitant hyperthermia (HT). METHODS: :Patients had histologically proven unresectable sacral chordomas and received 70 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) in 2.5 Gy fractions with concomitant weekly HT. Toxicity was assessed according to CTCAE_v4. A volumetric tumor response analysis was performed. RESULTS: :Five patients were treated with the combined approach. Median baseline tumor volume was 735 cc (range, 369-1142). All patients completed PT and received a median of 5 HT sessions (range, 2-6). Median follow-up was 18 months (range, 9-26). The volumetric analysis showed an objective response of all tumors (median shrinkage 46%; range, 9-72). All patients experienced acute Grade 2-3 local pain. One patient presented with a late Grade 3 iliac fracture. CONCLUSION:Combining PT and HT in large inoperable sacral chordomas is feasible and causes acceptable toxicity. Volumetric analysis shows promising early results, warranting confirmation in the framework of a prospective trial. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: :This is an encouraging first report of the feasibility and early results of concomitant HT and PT in treating inoperable sacral chordoma.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:National guidelines recommend screening and treatment for cancer-related bone disease and continued monitoring of bone-modifying agents. It is unclear whether a standardized screening tool is utilized to identify eligible patients and ensure appropriate supportive care is implemented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate current prescribing practices and optimize management of bone-modifying agents. METHODS:A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients who received hormone deprivation therapy or had bone metastases through Hematology/Oncology or Urology clinics from 1 November 2016 to 31 October 2017. The primary endpoints of this study were the incidence of completed baseline dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan for patients on hormone deprivation therapy and percent of patients started on a bone-modifying agent for the prevention of skeletal-related events secondary to bone metastasis. Secondary endpoints included percent of patients with dental examinations prior to initiation, adequate calcium and vitamin D supplementation, incidence of osteonecrosis of the jaw or flu-like symptoms and education, and percent of bisphosphonate doses appropriately adjusted based on renal function. RESULTS:A total of 375 patients were assessed for baseline DEXA scans and bone-modifying therapy. Of the 226 patients on hormone deprivation therapy, 111 (49%) patients were appropriately screened with a DEXA scan prior to initiation of hormone deprivation therapy. Among the 149 patients with bone metastases, only 94 (63.1%) patients were started on a bone-modifying agent. CONCLUSIONS:Opportunities have been identified to optimize management of patients with cancer-related bone disease. Implementation of standardized tools may increase the rate of appropriate screening and initiation of bone-modifying therapy when warranted.
METHODS:PURPOSE:Low skeletal muscle mass has been associated with poor prognosis in patients with advanced lung cancer. However, little is known about the relationship between skeletal muscle mass and overall survival in patients with bone metastases from lung cancer. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of low trunk muscle mass in predicting overall survival in these patients. METHODS:The data from 198 patients who were diagnosed with bone metastases from lung cancer from April 2009 to May 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. The areas of the psoas and paravertebral muscles were measured at the level of the third lumbar vertebra on computed tomography scans taken at the time nearest to the diagnosis of bone metastasis. Muscle area was evaluated for male and female cohorts separately using different cutoff points. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to evaluate the factors independently associated with overall survival. RESULTS:The overall survival of patients in the lowest quartile for psoas muscle area or paravertebral muscle area was significantly shorter than that of patients above the 25th percentile for muscle area (p < 0.001). Multivariate analyses showed that paravertebral muscle mass (hazard ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.56; p = 0.006), epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted therapy, and performance status were independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS:Low paravertebral muscle mass was associated with shorter survival, independently of known prognostic factors.