Experimental Study of Somatic Variants of Osteosarcoma by Whole-Exome Sequencing.
- 作者列表："Hou J","Liu G","Zhang P","Wang B","Yan Q","Wu P","Wang C","Yao W
:BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the role of gene mutation site distribution, biological function, pathway enrichment, and gene association analysis in the occurrence, development, and migration of osteosarcoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS Somatic mutation screening was performed using the whole-exome sequencing of osteosarcoma samples, and the distribution of mutations was demonstrated by Circos diagrams. Metascape was used to analyze the GO and KEGG signal pathway enrichment of the genes harboring protein coding alterations, and GeneMANIA was used to analyze the interaction of mutated genes. RESULTS The results showed that the protein coding alterations were found throughout the whole genome in 3 osteosarcoma samples. A large number of identical or related biological processes and pathways were found in osteosarcoma samples. The GeneMANIA analysis of the 10 mutations shared by 3 samples showed that the target gene minichromosome maintenance complex component 4 (MCM4) and 3 lateral genes were most functional, and were all related to DNA replication. The analysis of GO and KEGG signal pathway enrichment showed that the mutated genes were involved mainly in tumor-related metabolic pathways. Three mutated genes were involved in the cell process, and 2 mutated genes were involved in the metabolic process. Known driver gene mutations were also observed in the samples. CONCLUSIONS The gene analysis confirmed that patients with osteosarcoma had a wide range of common gene mutations related to each other, which are involved in tumor-related metabolic pathways. These findings provide a basis for further gene-targeted therapy and pathway research.
背景: 本研究旨在探讨基因突变位点分布、生物学功能、通路富集和基因关联分析在骨肉瘤发生、发展和迁移中的作用。材料和方法使用骨肉瘤样本的全外显子组测序进行体细胞突变筛查，并通过Circos图证明突变的分布。Metascape用于分析携带蛋白编码改变的基因的GO和KEGG信号通路富集，GeneMANIA用于分析突变基因的相互作用。结果 3 例骨肉瘤标本全基因组均存在蛋白编码改变。在骨肉瘤样本中发现大量相同或相关的生物学过程和通路。3 个样本共有 10 个突变的GeneMANIA分析表明，目的基因微小染色体维持复合体组分 4 (MCM 4) 和 3 个侧向基因最具功能，均与DNA复制有关。对GO和KEGG信号通路富集的分析表明，突变基因主要参与肿瘤相关代谢通路。3 个突变基因参与细胞过程，2 个突变基因参与代谢过程。在样本中也观察到已知的驱动基因突变。结论基因分析证实骨肉瘤患者存在广泛的共同基因突变，这些基因突变与肿瘤相关的代谢途径有关。这些发现为进一步的基因靶向治疗及通路研究提供了基础。
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Large inoperable sacral chordomas show unsatisfactory local control rates even when treated with high dose proton therapy (PT). The aim of this study is assessing feasibility and reporting early results of patients treated with PT and concomitant hyperthermia (HT). METHODS: :Patients had histologically proven unresectable sacral chordomas and received 70 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) in 2.5 Gy fractions with concomitant weekly HT. Toxicity was assessed according to CTCAE_v4. A volumetric tumor response analysis was performed. RESULTS: :Five patients were treated with the combined approach. Median baseline tumor volume was 735 cc (range, 369-1142). All patients completed PT and received a median of 5 HT sessions (range, 2-6). Median follow-up was 18 months (range, 9-26). The volumetric analysis showed an objective response of all tumors (median shrinkage 46%; range, 9-72). All patients experienced acute Grade 2-3 local pain. One patient presented with a late Grade 3 iliac fracture. CONCLUSION:Combining PT and HT in large inoperable sacral chordomas is feasible and causes acceptable toxicity. Volumetric analysis shows promising early results, warranting confirmation in the framework of a prospective trial. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: :This is an encouraging first report of the feasibility and early results of concomitant HT and PT in treating inoperable sacral chordoma.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:National guidelines recommend screening and treatment for cancer-related bone disease and continued monitoring of bone-modifying agents. It is unclear whether a standardized screening tool is utilized to identify eligible patients and ensure appropriate supportive care is implemented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate current prescribing practices and optimize management of bone-modifying agents. METHODS:A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients who received hormone deprivation therapy or had bone metastases through Hematology/Oncology or Urology clinics from 1 November 2016 to 31 October 2017. The primary endpoints of this study were the incidence of completed baseline dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan for patients on hormone deprivation therapy and percent of patients started on a bone-modifying agent for the prevention of skeletal-related events secondary to bone metastasis. Secondary endpoints included percent of patients with dental examinations prior to initiation, adequate calcium and vitamin D supplementation, incidence of osteonecrosis of the jaw or flu-like symptoms and education, and percent of bisphosphonate doses appropriately adjusted based on renal function. RESULTS:A total of 375 patients were assessed for baseline DEXA scans and bone-modifying therapy. Of the 226 patients on hormone deprivation therapy, 111 (49%) patients were appropriately screened with a DEXA scan prior to initiation of hormone deprivation therapy. Among the 149 patients with bone metastases, only 94 (63.1%) patients were started on a bone-modifying agent. CONCLUSIONS:Opportunities have been identified to optimize management of patients with cancer-related bone disease. Implementation of standardized tools may increase the rate of appropriate screening and initiation of bone-modifying therapy when warranted.
METHODS:PURPOSE:Low skeletal muscle mass has been associated with poor prognosis in patients with advanced lung cancer. However, little is known about the relationship between skeletal muscle mass and overall survival in patients with bone metastases from lung cancer. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of low trunk muscle mass in predicting overall survival in these patients. METHODS:The data from 198 patients who were diagnosed with bone metastases from lung cancer from April 2009 to May 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. The areas of the psoas and paravertebral muscles were measured at the level of the third lumbar vertebra on computed tomography scans taken at the time nearest to the diagnosis of bone metastasis. Muscle area was evaluated for male and female cohorts separately using different cutoff points. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to evaluate the factors independently associated with overall survival. RESULTS:The overall survival of patients in the lowest quartile for psoas muscle area or paravertebral muscle area was significantly shorter than that of patients above the 25th percentile for muscle area (p < 0.001). Multivariate analyses showed that paravertebral muscle mass (hazard ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.56; p = 0.006), epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted therapy, and performance status were independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS:Low paravertebral muscle mass was associated with shorter survival, independently of known prognostic factors.