Reprograming the tumor immunologic microenvironment using neoadjuvant chemotherapy in osteosarcoma.
- 作者列表："Deng C","Xu Y","Fu J","Zhu X","Chen H","Xu H","Wang G","Song Y","Song G","Lu J","Liu R","Tang Q","Huang W","Wang J
:Tumor-infiltrating immune cells play a crucial role in tumor progression and response to treatment. However, the limited studies on infiltrating immune cells have shown inconsistent and even controversial results for osteosarcoma (OS). In addition, the dynamic changes of infiltrating immune cells after neoadjuvant chemotherapy are largely unknown. We downloaded the RNA expression matrix and clinical information of 80 OS patients from the TARGET database. CIBERSORT was used to evaluate the proportion of 22 immune cell types in patients based on gene expression data. M2 macrophages were found to be the most abundant immune cell type and were associated with improved survival in OS. Another cohort of pretreated OS samples was evaluated by immunohistochemistry to validate the results from CIBERSORT analysis. Matched biopsy and surgical samples from 27 patients were collected to investigate the dynamic change of immune cells and factors before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was associated with increased densities of CD3+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, Ki67 + CD8+ T cells and PD-L1+ immune cells. Moreover, HLA-DR-CD33+ myeloid-derived suppressive cells (MDSC) were decreased after treatment. We determined that the application of chemotherapy may activate the local immune status and convert OS into an immune "hot" tumor. These findings provide rationale for investigating the schedule of immunotherapy treatment in OS patients in future clinical trials.
: 肿瘤浸润的免疫细胞在肿瘤进展和对治疗的反应中起着至关重要的作用。然而，对浸润免疫细胞的有限研究显示了骨肉瘤 (OS) 的不一致甚至有争议的结果。此外，新辅助化疗后浸润免疫细胞的动态变化在很大程度上是未知的。我们从目标数据库中下载了 80 例OS患者的RNA表达矩阵和临床信息。使用CIBERSORT基于基因表达数据评估患者中 22 种免疫细胞类型的比例。M2 巨噬细胞被发现是最丰富的免疫细胞类型，并与OS中的生存率改善相关。另一组预处理的OS样本通过免疫组化进行评价，以验证CIBERSORT分析的结果。收集 27 例患者匹配的活检和手术标本，研究新辅助化疗前后免疫细胞和因子的动态变化。新辅助化疗与CD3 + T细胞、CD8 + T细胞、Ki67 + CD8 + T细胞和PD-L1 + 免疫细胞密度增加有关。此外，治疗后HLA-DR-CD33 + 髓源性抑制细胞 (MDSC) 减少。我们确定化疗的应用可能会激活局部免疫状态，并将OS转化为免疫 “热” 肿瘤。这些发现为在未来的临床试验中研究OS患者的免疫治疗方案提供了理由。
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Large inoperable sacral chordomas show unsatisfactory local control rates even when treated with high dose proton therapy (PT). The aim of this study is assessing feasibility and reporting early results of patients treated with PT and concomitant hyperthermia (HT). METHODS: :Patients had histologically proven unresectable sacral chordomas and received 70 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) in 2.5 Gy fractions with concomitant weekly HT. Toxicity was assessed according to CTCAE_v4. A volumetric tumor response analysis was performed. RESULTS: :Five patients were treated with the combined approach. Median baseline tumor volume was 735 cc (range, 369-1142). All patients completed PT and received a median of 5 HT sessions (range, 2-6). Median follow-up was 18 months (range, 9-26). The volumetric analysis showed an objective response of all tumors (median shrinkage 46%; range, 9-72). All patients experienced acute Grade 2-3 local pain. One patient presented with a late Grade 3 iliac fracture. CONCLUSION:Combining PT and HT in large inoperable sacral chordomas is feasible and causes acceptable toxicity. Volumetric analysis shows promising early results, warranting confirmation in the framework of a prospective trial. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: :This is an encouraging first report of the feasibility and early results of concomitant HT and PT in treating inoperable sacral chordoma.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:National guidelines recommend screening and treatment for cancer-related bone disease and continued monitoring of bone-modifying agents. It is unclear whether a standardized screening tool is utilized to identify eligible patients and ensure appropriate supportive care is implemented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate current prescribing practices and optimize management of bone-modifying agents. METHODS:A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients who received hormone deprivation therapy or had bone metastases through Hematology/Oncology or Urology clinics from 1 November 2016 to 31 October 2017. The primary endpoints of this study were the incidence of completed baseline dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan for patients on hormone deprivation therapy and percent of patients started on a bone-modifying agent for the prevention of skeletal-related events secondary to bone metastasis. Secondary endpoints included percent of patients with dental examinations prior to initiation, adequate calcium and vitamin D supplementation, incidence of osteonecrosis of the jaw or flu-like symptoms and education, and percent of bisphosphonate doses appropriately adjusted based on renal function. RESULTS:A total of 375 patients were assessed for baseline DEXA scans and bone-modifying therapy. Of the 226 patients on hormone deprivation therapy, 111 (49%) patients were appropriately screened with a DEXA scan prior to initiation of hormone deprivation therapy. Among the 149 patients with bone metastases, only 94 (63.1%) patients were started on a bone-modifying agent. CONCLUSIONS:Opportunities have been identified to optimize management of patients with cancer-related bone disease. Implementation of standardized tools may increase the rate of appropriate screening and initiation of bone-modifying therapy when warranted.
METHODS:PURPOSE:Low skeletal muscle mass has been associated with poor prognosis in patients with advanced lung cancer. However, little is known about the relationship between skeletal muscle mass and overall survival in patients with bone metastases from lung cancer. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of low trunk muscle mass in predicting overall survival in these patients. METHODS:The data from 198 patients who were diagnosed with bone metastases from lung cancer from April 2009 to May 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. The areas of the psoas and paravertebral muscles were measured at the level of the third lumbar vertebra on computed tomography scans taken at the time nearest to the diagnosis of bone metastasis. Muscle area was evaluated for male and female cohorts separately using different cutoff points. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to evaluate the factors independently associated with overall survival. RESULTS:The overall survival of patients in the lowest quartile for psoas muscle area or paravertebral muscle area was significantly shorter than that of patients above the 25th percentile for muscle area (p < 0.001). Multivariate analyses showed that paravertebral muscle mass (hazard ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.56; p = 0.006), epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted therapy, and performance status were independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS:Low paravertebral muscle mass was associated with shorter survival, independently of known prognostic factors.