Small molecule inhibition of Ewing sarcoma cell growth via targeting the long non coding RNA HULC.
- 作者列表："Mercatelli N","Fortini D","Palombo R","Paronetto MP
:Ewing sarcomas (ES) are aggressive pediatric cancers of bone and soft tissues characterized by in frame chromosomal translocations giving rise to chimeric transcription factors, such as EWS-FLI1. An emerging strategy to block EWS-FLI1 activity is represented by the small molecule YK-4-279, which binds to EWS-FLI1 and alters its transcriptional activity. The specific effectors of the anti-oncogenic activity of YK-4-279 are still largely unknown. Herein, by performing a high-throughput screening we identify the lncRNA HULC (Highly Upregulated in Liver Cancer) as a prominent target of YK-4-279 activity in ES cells. High levels of HULC correlate with ES aggressiveness, whereas HULC depletion reduces ES cell growth. Mechanistically, we find that HULC promotes the expression of TWIST1 oncogene by sponging miR-186. Downregulation of HULC upon treatment with YK-4-279 reduces the expression of TWIST1 by unleashing miR-186 and favoring its binding to TWIST1 transcripts. Notably, high levels of miR-186 and low levels of TWIST1 correlate with better prognosis in ES patients. Our results disclose a novel oncogenic regulatory circuit mediated by HULC lncRNA that is disrupted by the small molecule YK-4-279, with promising therapeutic implications for ES treatment.
: 尤因肉瘤 (Ewing sarcomas，ES) 是侵袭性骨和软组织儿童癌症，其特征是框架染色体易位产生嵌合转录因子，如EWS-FLI1。阻断EWS-FLI1 活性的新策略是小分子YK-4-279，它与EWS-FLI1 结合并改变其转录活性。YK-4-279 的抗癌活性的具体效应器在很大程度上仍然是未知的。在此，通过进行高通量筛选，我们确定lncRNA HULC (在肝癌中高度上调) 是ES细胞中YK-4-279 活性的突出靶点。高水平的HULC与ES侵袭性相关，而HULC耗竭可减少ES细胞生长。从机理上说，我们发现HULC通过海绵miR-186 促进TWIST1 癌基因的表达。YK-4-279 处理后HULC的下调通过释放miR-186 并有利于其与TWIST1 转录本的结合来降低TWIST1 的表达。值得注意的是，高水平的miR-186 和低水平的TWIST1 与ES患者较好的预后相关。我们的研究结果揭示了一种由HULC lncRNA介导的新型致癌调控回路，该回路被小分子YK-4-279 破坏，对ES治疗具有潜在的治疗意义。
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Large inoperable sacral chordomas show unsatisfactory local control rates even when treated with high dose proton therapy (PT). The aim of this study is assessing feasibility and reporting early results of patients treated with PT and concomitant hyperthermia (HT). METHODS: :Patients had histologically proven unresectable sacral chordomas and received 70 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) in 2.5 Gy fractions with concomitant weekly HT. Toxicity was assessed according to CTCAE_v4. A volumetric tumor response analysis was performed. RESULTS: :Five patients were treated with the combined approach. Median baseline tumor volume was 735 cc (range, 369-1142). All patients completed PT and received a median of 5 HT sessions (range, 2-6). Median follow-up was 18 months (range, 9-26). The volumetric analysis showed an objective response of all tumors (median shrinkage 46%; range, 9-72). All patients experienced acute Grade 2-3 local pain. One patient presented with a late Grade 3 iliac fracture. CONCLUSION:Combining PT and HT in large inoperable sacral chordomas is feasible and causes acceptable toxicity. Volumetric analysis shows promising early results, warranting confirmation in the framework of a prospective trial. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: :This is an encouraging first report of the feasibility and early results of concomitant HT and PT in treating inoperable sacral chordoma.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:National guidelines recommend screening and treatment for cancer-related bone disease and continued monitoring of bone-modifying agents. It is unclear whether a standardized screening tool is utilized to identify eligible patients and ensure appropriate supportive care is implemented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate current prescribing practices and optimize management of bone-modifying agents. METHODS:A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients who received hormone deprivation therapy or had bone metastases through Hematology/Oncology or Urology clinics from 1 November 2016 to 31 October 2017. The primary endpoints of this study were the incidence of completed baseline dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan for patients on hormone deprivation therapy and percent of patients started on a bone-modifying agent for the prevention of skeletal-related events secondary to bone metastasis. Secondary endpoints included percent of patients with dental examinations prior to initiation, adequate calcium and vitamin D supplementation, incidence of osteonecrosis of the jaw or flu-like symptoms and education, and percent of bisphosphonate doses appropriately adjusted based on renal function. RESULTS:A total of 375 patients were assessed for baseline DEXA scans and bone-modifying therapy. Of the 226 patients on hormone deprivation therapy, 111 (49%) patients were appropriately screened with a DEXA scan prior to initiation of hormone deprivation therapy. Among the 149 patients with bone metastases, only 94 (63.1%) patients were started on a bone-modifying agent. CONCLUSIONS:Opportunities have been identified to optimize management of patients with cancer-related bone disease. Implementation of standardized tools may increase the rate of appropriate screening and initiation of bone-modifying therapy when warranted.
METHODS:PURPOSE:Low skeletal muscle mass has been associated with poor prognosis in patients with advanced lung cancer. However, little is known about the relationship between skeletal muscle mass and overall survival in patients with bone metastases from lung cancer. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of low trunk muscle mass in predicting overall survival in these patients. METHODS:The data from 198 patients who were diagnosed with bone metastases from lung cancer from April 2009 to May 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. The areas of the psoas and paravertebral muscles were measured at the level of the third lumbar vertebra on computed tomography scans taken at the time nearest to the diagnosis of bone metastasis. Muscle area was evaluated for male and female cohorts separately using different cutoff points. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to evaluate the factors independently associated with overall survival. RESULTS:The overall survival of patients in the lowest quartile for psoas muscle area or paravertebral muscle area was significantly shorter than that of patients above the 25th percentile for muscle area (p < 0.001). Multivariate analyses showed that paravertebral muscle mass (hazard ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.56; p = 0.006), epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted therapy, and performance status were independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS:Low paravertebral muscle mass was associated with shorter survival, independently of known prognostic factors.