Making sense of giant cell lesions of the jaws (GCLJ): lessons learned from next-generation sequencing.
理解颌骨巨细胞病变 (GCLJ): 新一代测序的经验教训。
- 作者列表："Gomes CC","Diniz MG","Bastos VC","Bernardes VF","Gomez RS
:Next-generation sequencing has revealed mutations in several bone-related lesions and was recently used to uncover the genetic basis of giant cell lesions of the jaws (GCLJ). Consistent with their benign nature, GCLJ show a low tumor mutation burden. They also harbor somatic, heterozygous, mutually exclusive mutations in TRPV4, KRAS, or FGFR1. These signature mutations occur only in a subset of lesional cells, suggesting the existence of a 'landscaping effect', with mutant cells inducing abnormal accumulation of non-mutant cells that form the tumor mass. Osteoclast-rich lesions with histological similarities to GCLJ can occur in the jaws sporadically or in association with genetically inherited syndromes. Based on recent results, the pathogenesis of a subgroup of sporadic GCLJ seems closely related to non-ossifying fibroma of long bones, with both lesions sharing MAPK pathway-activating mutations. In this review, we extrapolate from these recent findings to contextualize GCLJ genetics and we highlight the therapeutic implications of this new information. © 2019 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
: 新一代测序发现了几个骨相关病变的突变，最近被用于揭示颌骨巨细胞病变 (GCLJ) 的遗传基础。与其良性性质一致，GCLJ显示低肿瘤突变负荷。它们还在TRPV4 、KRAS或fgfr1 中携带体细胞、杂合子、互斥突变。这些标志性突变仅发生在一部分皮损细胞中，提示存在 “美化效应”，突变细胞诱导形成肿瘤团的非突变细胞异常聚集。与GCLJ组织学相似的富含破骨细胞的病变可零星发生在颌骨内，或与遗传遗传性综合征有关。基于最近的结果，散发性GCLJ亚组的发病机制似乎与长骨非骨化性纤维瘤密切相关，两个病灶共享MAPK通路激活突变。在这篇综述中，我们从这些最近的发现推断出GCLJ遗传学的背景，并强调了这一新信息的治疗意义。©2019 大不列颠及爱尔兰病理学会。由John Wiley & Sons，Ltd发布。
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Large inoperable sacral chordomas show unsatisfactory local control rates even when treated with high dose proton therapy (PT). The aim of this study is assessing feasibility and reporting early results of patients treated with PT and concomitant hyperthermia (HT). METHODS: :Patients had histologically proven unresectable sacral chordomas and received 70 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) in 2.5 Gy fractions with concomitant weekly HT. Toxicity was assessed according to CTCAE_v4. A volumetric tumor response analysis was performed. RESULTS: :Five patients were treated with the combined approach. Median baseline tumor volume was 735 cc (range, 369-1142). All patients completed PT and received a median of 5 HT sessions (range, 2-6). Median follow-up was 18 months (range, 9-26). The volumetric analysis showed an objective response of all tumors (median shrinkage 46%; range, 9-72). All patients experienced acute Grade 2-3 local pain. One patient presented with a late Grade 3 iliac fracture. CONCLUSION:Combining PT and HT in large inoperable sacral chordomas is feasible and causes acceptable toxicity. Volumetric analysis shows promising early results, warranting confirmation in the framework of a prospective trial. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: :This is an encouraging first report of the feasibility and early results of concomitant HT and PT in treating inoperable sacral chordoma.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:National guidelines recommend screening and treatment for cancer-related bone disease and continued monitoring of bone-modifying agents. It is unclear whether a standardized screening tool is utilized to identify eligible patients and ensure appropriate supportive care is implemented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate current prescribing practices and optimize management of bone-modifying agents. METHODS:A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients who received hormone deprivation therapy or had bone metastases through Hematology/Oncology or Urology clinics from 1 November 2016 to 31 October 2017. The primary endpoints of this study were the incidence of completed baseline dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan for patients on hormone deprivation therapy and percent of patients started on a bone-modifying agent for the prevention of skeletal-related events secondary to bone metastasis. Secondary endpoints included percent of patients with dental examinations prior to initiation, adequate calcium and vitamin D supplementation, incidence of osteonecrosis of the jaw or flu-like symptoms and education, and percent of bisphosphonate doses appropriately adjusted based on renal function. RESULTS:A total of 375 patients were assessed for baseline DEXA scans and bone-modifying therapy. Of the 226 patients on hormone deprivation therapy, 111 (49%) patients were appropriately screened with a DEXA scan prior to initiation of hormone deprivation therapy. Among the 149 patients with bone metastases, only 94 (63.1%) patients were started on a bone-modifying agent. CONCLUSIONS:Opportunities have been identified to optimize management of patients with cancer-related bone disease. Implementation of standardized tools may increase the rate of appropriate screening and initiation of bone-modifying therapy when warranted.
METHODS:PURPOSE:Low skeletal muscle mass has been associated with poor prognosis in patients with advanced lung cancer. However, little is known about the relationship between skeletal muscle mass and overall survival in patients with bone metastases from lung cancer. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of low trunk muscle mass in predicting overall survival in these patients. METHODS:The data from 198 patients who were diagnosed with bone metastases from lung cancer from April 2009 to May 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. The areas of the psoas and paravertebral muscles were measured at the level of the third lumbar vertebra on computed tomography scans taken at the time nearest to the diagnosis of bone metastasis. Muscle area was evaluated for male and female cohorts separately using different cutoff points. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to evaluate the factors independently associated with overall survival. RESULTS:The overall survival of patients in the lowest quartile for psoas muscle area or paravertebral muscle area was significantly shorter than that of patients above the 25th percentile for muscle area (p < 0.001). Multivariate analyses showed that paravertebral muscle mass (hazard ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.56; p = 0.006), epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted therapy, and performance status were independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS:Low paravertebral muscle mass was associated with shorter survival, independently of known prognostic factors.