Whole-Genome and Segmental Homozygosity Confirm Errors in Meiosis as Etiology of Struma Ovarii.
- 作者列表："Henderson BB","Chaubey A","Roth LM","Robboy SJ","Tarasidis G","Jones JR","Sundermann JM","Chou J","Craddock AL","Stevenson L","Friez MJ","Kincaid EH","Stevenson RE
:Strumae ovarii are neoplasms composed of normal-appearing thyroid tissue that occur within the ovary and rarely spread to extraovarian sites. A unique case of struma ovarii with widespread dissemination detected 48 years after removal of a pelvic dermoid provided the opportunity to reexamine the molecular nature of this form of neoplasm. One tumor, from the heart, consisting of benign thyroid tissue was found to have whole-genome homozygosity. Another tumor from the right mandible composed of malignant-appearing thyroid tissue showed whole-genome homozygosity and a deletion of 7p, presumably the second hit that transformed it into a cancerous tumor. Specimens from 2 other cases of extraovarian struma confined to the abdomen and 8 of 9 cases of intraovarian struma showed genome-wide segmental homozygosity. These findings confirm errors in meiosis as the origin of struma ovarii. The histological and molecular findings further demonstrate that even when outside the ovary, strumae ovarii can behave nonaggressively until they receive a second hit, thereafter behaving like cancer.
: 卵巢甲状腺肿是由正常甲状腺组织组成的肿瘤，发生在卵巢内，很少扩散到卵巢外部位。在切除盆腔皮样瘤 48 年后发现了一例独特的广泛播散的卵巢甲状腺肿病例，为重新检查这种肿瘤的分子性质提供了机会。发现一个来自心脏的由良性甲状腺组织组成的肿瘤具有全基因组纯合性。另一种来自右下颌骨的肿瘤由恶性甲状腺组织组成，显示全基因组纯合子和 7p缺失，推测是第二次击中将其转化为癌性肿瘤。其他 2 例局限于腹部的卵巢外甲状腺肿和 9 例卵巢内甲状腺肿中的 8 例标本显示全基因组节段性纯合。这些发现证实了减数分裂的错误是卵巢甲状腺肿的起源。组织学和分子学研究结果进一步证明，即使在卵巢外，卵巢甲状腺肿也可以表现为非侵袭性，直到受到第二次打击，此后表现为癌症。
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Large inoperable sacral chordomas show unsatisfactory local control rates even when treated with high dose proton therapy (PT). The aim of this study is assessing feasibility and reporting early results of patients treated with PT and concomitant hyperthermia (HT). METHODS: :Patients had histologically proven unresectable sacral chordomas and received 70 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) in 2.5 Gy fractions with concomitant weekly HT. Toxicity was assessed according to CTCAE_v4. A volumetric tumor response analysis was performed. RESULTS: :Five patients were treated with the combined approach. Median baseline tumor volume was 735 cc (range, 369-1142). All patients completed PT and received a median of 5 HT sessions (range, 2-6). Median follow-up was 18 months (range, 9-26). The volumetric analysis showed an objective response of all tumors (median shrinkage 46%; range, 9-72). All patients experienced acute Grade 2-3 local pain. One patient presented with a late Grade 3 iliac fracture. CONCLUSION:Combining PT and HT in large inoperable sacral chordomas is feasible and causes acceptable toxicity. Volumetric analysis shows promising early results, warranting confirmation in the framework of a prospective trial. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: :This is an encouraging first report of the feasibility and early results of concomitant HT and PT in treating inoperable sacral chordoma.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:National guidelines recommend screening and treatment for cancer-related bone disease and continued monitoring of bone-modifying agents. It is unclear whether a standardized screening tool is utilized to identify eligible patients and ensure appropriate supportive care is implemented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate current prescribing practices and optimize management of bone-modifying agents. METHODS:A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients who received hormone deprivation therapy or had bone metastases through Hematology/Oncology or Urology clinics from 1 November 2016 to 31 October 2017. The primary endpoints of this study were the incidence of completed baseline dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan for patients on hormone deprivation therapy and percent of patients started on a bone-modifying agent for the prevention of skeletal-related events secondary to bone metastasis. Secondary endpoints included percent of patients with dental examinations prior to initiation, adequate calcium and vitamin D supplementation, incidence of osteonecrosis of the jaw or flu-like symptoms and education, and percent of bisphosphonate doses appropriately adjusted based on renal function. RESULTS:A total of 375 patients were assessed for baseline DEXA scans and bone-modifying therapy. Of the 226 patients on hormone deprivation therapy, 111 (49%) patients were appropriately screened with a DEXA scan prior to initiation of hormone deprivation therapy. Among the 149 patients with bone metastases, only 94 (63.1%) patients were started on a bone-modifying agent. CONCLUSIONS:Opportunities have been identified to optimize management of patients with cancer-related bone disease. Implementation of standardized tools may increase the rate of appropriate screening and initiation of bone-modifying therapy when warranted.
METHODS:PURPOSE:Low skeletal muscle mass has been associated with poor prognosis in patients with advanced lung cancer. However, little is known about the relationship between skeletal muscle mass and overall survival in patients with bone metastases from lung cancer. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of low trunk muscle mass in predicting overall survival in these patients. METHODS:The data from 198 patients who were diagnosed with bone metastases from lung cancer from April 2009 to May 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. The areas of the psoas and paravertebral muscles were measured at the level of the third lumbar vertebra on computed tomography scans taken at the time nearest to the diagnosis of bone metastasis. Muscle area was evaluated for male and female cohorts separately using different cutoff points. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to evaluate the factors independently associated with overall survival. RESULTS:The overall survival of patients in the lowest quartile for psoas muscle area or paravertebral muscle area was significantly shorter than that of patients above the 25th percentile for muscle area (p < 0.001). Multivariate analyses showed that paravertebral muscle mass (hazard ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.56; p = 0.006), epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted therapy, and performance status were independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS:Low paravertebral muscle mass was associated with shorter survival, independently of known prognostic factors.