- 作者列表："Jahns H","Cousens C
:Betaretrovirus-induced transmissible respiratory tumors in sheep arise at 2 distinct anatomic locations, either deep in the lung tissue caused by jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) or in the nasal cavity induced by ovine enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV-1). JSRV and ENTV-1 are found in many countries worldwide and have a significant economic and animal health impact. Although JSRV is endemic in sheep in the British Isles, ENTV-1 has not been reported. We report herein a nasal adenocarcinoma in a cull 8-y-old Belclare ewe from Ireland. The gross and microscopic features and immunohistochemistry results were consistent with an ENTV-1-associated tumor. However, differential PCR, using primers specific to regions of divergent sequence between the viruses, was performed on different parts of the adenocarcinoma and produced consistent results: positive for JSRV and negative for ENTV-1. An association of JSRV with nasal adenocarcinoma in sheep has not been reported previously, to our knowledge. Our case shows the necessity of using PCR in combination with immunohistochemistry to reach an accurate etiologic diagnosis, which is of importance in countries currently free of ENTV-1.
: Β 受体病毒诱导的绵羊传染性呼吸道肿瘤发生在两个不同的解剖部位，要么发生在jaagsiekte绵羊受体病毒 (JSRV) 引起的肺组织深处或在鼻腔内诱发羊流行性鼻肿瘤病毒 (ENTV-1)。JSRV和ENTV-1 存在于世界许多国家，对经济和动物健康有重大影响。虽然JSRV在英伦三岛的绵羊中流行，但ENTV-1 尚未见报道。我们在此报道了来自爱尔兰的一只 8 岁的Belclare母羊的一个鼻腺癌。大体和镜下特征及免疫组化结果均符合肿瘤ENTV-1-associated。然而，使用病毒之间分歧序列区域的特异性引物，对腺癌的不同部位进行差异PCR，并产生一致的结果: JSRV阳性，ENTV-1 阴性。据我们所知，JSRV与绵羊鼻腺癌的相关性尚未见报道。我们的病例显示了使用PCR结合免疫组织化学来达到准确的病因学诊断的必要性，这在目前没有ENTV-1 的国家是重要的。
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Large inoperable sacral chordomas show unsatisfactory local control rates even when treated with high dose proton therapy (PT). The aim of this study is assessing feasibility and reporting early results of patients treated with PT and concomitant hyperthermia (HT). METHODS: :Patients had histologically proven unresectable sacral chordomas and received 70 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) in 2.5 Gy fractions with concomitant weekly HT. Toxicity was assessed according to CTCAE_v4. A volumetric tumor response analysis was performed. RESULTS: :Five patients were treated with the combined approach. Median baseline tumor volume was 735 cc (range, 369-1142). All patients completed PT and received a median of 5 HT sessions (range, 2-6). Median follow-up was 18 months (range, 9-26). The volumetric analysis showed an objective response of all tumors (median shrinkage 46%; range, 9-72). All patients experienced acute Grade 2-3 local pain. One patient presented with a late Grade 3 iliac fracture. CONCLUSION:Combining PT and HT in large inoperable sacral chordomas is feasible and causes acceptable toxicity. Volumetric analysis shows promising early results, warranting confirmation in the framework of a prospective trial. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: :This is an encouraging first report of the feasibility and early results of concomitant HT and PT in treating inoperable sacral chordoma.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:National guidelines recommend screening and treatment for cancer-related bone disease and continued monitoring of bone-modifying agents. It is unclear whether a standardized screening tool is utilized to identify eligible patients and ensure appropriate supportive care is implemented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate current prescribing practices and optimize management of bone-modifying agents. METHODS:A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients who received hormone deprivation therapy or had bone metastases through Hematology/Oncology or Urology clinics from 1 November 2016 to 31 October 2017. The primary endpoints of this study were the incidence of completed baseline dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan for patients on hormone deprivation therapy and percent of patients started on a bone-modifying agent for the prevention of skeletal-related events secondary to bone metastasis. Secondary endpoints included percent of patients with dental examinations prior to initiation, adequate calcium and vitamin D supplementation, incidence of osteonecrosis of the jaw or flu-like symptoms and education, and percent of bisphosphonate doses appropriately adjusted based on renal function. RESULTS:A total of 375 patients were assessed for baseline DEXA scans and bone-modifying therapy. Of the 226 patients on hormone deprivation therapy, 111 (49%) patients were appropriately screened with a DEXA scan prior to initiation of hormone deprivation therapy. Among the 149 patients with bone metastases, only 94 (63.1%) patients were started on a bone-modifying agent. CONCLUSIONS:Opportunities have been identified to optimize management of patients with cancer-related bone disease. Implementation of standardized tools may increase the rate of appropriate screening and initiation of bone-modifying therapy when warranted.
METHODS:PURPOSE:Low skeletal muscle mass has been associated with poor prognosis in patients with advanced lung cancer. However, little is known about the relationship between skeletal muscle mass and overall survival in patients with bone metastases from lung cancer. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of low trunk muscle mass in predicting overall survival in these patients. METHODS:The data from 198 patients who were diagnosed with bone metastases from lung cancer from April 2009 to May 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. The areas of the psoas and paravertebral muscles were measured at the level of the third lumbar vertebra on computed tomography scans taken at the time nearest to the diagnosis of bone metastasis. Muscle area was evaluated for male and female cohorts separately using different cutoff points. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to evaluate the factors independently associated with overall survival. RESULTS:The overall survival of patients in the lowest quartile for psoas muscle area or paravertebral muscle area was significantly shorter than that of patients above the 25th percentile for muscle area (p < 0.001). Multivariate analyses showed that paravertebral muscle mass (hazard ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.56; p = 0.006), epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted therapy, and performance status were independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS:Low paravertebral muscle mass was associated with shorter survival, independently of known prognostic factors.