Cutaneous neoplasms composed of melanoma and carcinoma: A rare but important diagnostic pitfall and review of the literature.
- 作者列表："Mejbel HA","Nelson KC","Pradhan D","Ivan D","Zaleski M","Nagarajan P","Tetzlaff MT","Curry JL","Torres-Cabala CA","Prieto VG","Aung PP
:We report two cases of combined cutaneous tumors composed of melanoma and carcinoma. The first tumor presented as a 5-mm pink-blue macule over the right zygomatic arch in an 85-year-old man. Shave biopsy and immunohistochemical studies revealed that the tumor was composed of melanoma (highlighted by SOX10 and MART-1, with high Ki-67 proliferative index) intermixed with nodular basal cell carcinoma (highlighted by pan-cytokeratin and Ber-EP4). The neoplastic melanocytes were confined to the basal cell carcinoma nodules, and a diagnosis of combined melanoma in situ and basal cell carcinoma was rendered. After therapeutic excision, the patient was disease-free at 9 months after the initial diagnosis. The second tumor presented as a 6-mm pink-brown crusted papule on the right forehead in an 89-year-old man. Shave biopsy and immunohistochemical studies revealed that the tumor was composed of malignant melanoma (MM) (highlighted by S100 and MART-1) intermixed with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (highlighted by cytokeratin and p63), and a diagnosis of combined MM-SCC was rendered. These two cases highlight the importance of recognizing these rare types of melanocytic-epithelial cutaneous neoplasms to arrive at an accurate diagnosis that may inform appropriate disease stage and therapy.
: 我们报告两例由黑色素瘤和癌组成的混合性皮肤肿瘤。第一个肿瘤表现为右颧弓上的 5mm粉蓝色斑疹，患者为 85 岁男性。刮脸活检和免疫组化研究发现肿瘤由黑色素瘤组成 (SOX 1 0 和MART-1 突出显示，Ki-67 增殖指数高) 混合结节状基底细胞癌 (泛细胞角蛋白和Ber-EP4 突出)。肿瘤性黑素细胞局限于基底细胞癌结节，诊断为原位黑色素瘤和基底细胞癌。治疗性切除后，患者在初诊后 9 个月时无病。第二个肿瘤表现为右额部 6 毫米的粉褐色结痂丘疹，患者为 89 岁男性。剃须活组织检查和免疫组织化学研究显示，肿瘤由恶性黑色素瘤 (MM) (由S 1 00 和MART-1 突出显示) 与鳞状细胞癌 (SCC) 混合组成 (以细胞角蛋白和p63 突出显示)，并作出联合MM-SCC的诊断。这两例突出了识别这些罕见类型的黑素细胞上皮性皮肤肿瘤的重要性，以获得准确的诊断，从而可能告知适当的疾病分期和治疗。
METHODS::Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome (BRBNS) is an extremely rare venous malformation that often manifests as multiple haemangioma-like lesions in the skin and gastrointestinal tract. The drug sirolimus plays a key role in the signalling pathway of angiogenesis and subsequent development of BRBNS and its use has been described in several case reports. We present a case series of four patients with BRBNS who exhibited good treatment response to sirolimus. All four patients were administered oral sirolimus at doses of 1.0-1.5 mg/m2 /day with a target drug level of 5-10 ng/mL and median treatment duration of 20 months. All patients had a reduction in the size of the lesions and a normalization of coagulopathy with tolerable drug adverse reactions at follow-up. Sirolimus may be effective and safe in paediatric patients with BRBNS. Further prospective studies are suggested to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of this drug.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with common dermatologic and nondermatologic diseases. Although HPV vaccines are well established as preventive measures for genital warts and cervical neoplasia, their use as therapeutic agents deserves greater attention. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the use of HPV vaccine(s) as a treatment modality for cutaneous and/or mucosal disease. METHODS:A primary literature search using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was conducted in January 2019 by using the PubMed and Cochrane databases. RESULTS:A total of 63 articles with 4439 patients were included. The majority of patients with cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas were successfully treated with HPV vaccination. Preliminary data on patients with pre-existing anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is promising. LIMITATIONS:This review was limited by the lack of controls, patients' previous HPV vaccination status, and publication bias. CONCLUSION:The commercially available three-dose, quadrivalent HPV vaccine is a potential therapeutic option for the treatment of cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas. Noncommercially available HPV vaccines demonstrate therapeutic response for treating anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. The vaccine's efficacy as an adjunct therapy for HPV-associated cutaneous and/or mucosal disease warrants further exploration.
METHODS::Our understanding of melanoma precursors and progression to melanoma has developed as a result of advances in the field of molecular diagnostics. We now better understand the potential for genetic heterogeneity within a single lesion. Combined tumors can pose a diagnostic challenge when deciding the line between benign and malignant, which in turn has direct implications for patient management. Primary cilia (PC) are ubiquitous sensory organelles that have essential functions in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and development. The ciliation index (percentage of ciliated melanocytes) has been shown to reliably differentiate melanoma, which fail to ciliate, from melanocytic nevi, which retain PC. We therefore analyzed the potential for using the ciliation index to differentiate benign and malignant components in combined melanocytic lesions. We collected patient samples (n = 10) of unequivocal combined lesions with both melanoma and associated nevus components. Melanocytes were highlighted with SOX10 and costained with gamma-Tubulin and acetylated alpha-Tubulin to highlight the basal body and cilium, respectively. The number of melanocytes retaining cilia under high-power microscopy was examined. The melanoma component had average of 4% ciliation (SD: 7%), whereas the associated nevus component was significantly higher with 59% ciliation (SD: 17%). These data show that PC may be a reliable means of distinguishing benign from malignant components within a single tumor. The ciliation index may be a helpful tool in distinguishing challenging cases of combined lesions of melanoma in situ with a dermal nevus component from invasive melanoma, thus promoting improved staging and clinical management.