A pediatric case of pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma with chromosomal copy number alterations in 15q and 17q and a novel NTRK3-SCAPER gene fusion.
- 作者列表："Friedman BJ","Hernandez S","Fidai C","Jiang A","Shwayder TA","Carskadon S","Andea AA","Harms PW","Chitale D","Palanisamy N
:Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM) represents a group of rare, heavily pigmented melanocytic tumors encompassing lesions previously designated as "animal-type melanomas" and "epithelioid blue nevi." Despite the association of multiple such tumors in the setting of Carney complex, most cases of PEM occur spontaneously as solitary neoplasms in otherwise healthy patients. PEM may arise in both children and adults, and has a known propensity to spread to the regional lymph nodes. Despite this latter finding, recurrence at the biopsy site or spread beyond the lymph node basin is exceptionally uncommon. Although the molecular basis for PEM continues to be characterized, findings to date suggest that this category of melanocytic neoplasia has genetic alterations distinct from those seen in common nevi, dysplastic nevi, Spitz nevi, and melanoma. Herein, we present an in-depth clinical, histopathologic, and molecular analysis of a case of PEM occurring on the scalp of a young African American girl found to have a novel NTRK3-SCAPER gene fusion.
: 色素性上皮样黑色素细胞瘤 (PEM) 代表一组罕见的、重度色素性黑色素细胞肿瘤，包括以前称为 “动物型黑色素瘤” 和 “上皮样蓝痣” 的病变。尽管在Carney复合体的环境中存在多个此类肿瘤的关联，但大多数PEM病例在其他健康患者中作为孤立性肿瘤自发发生。PEM可能出现在儿童和成人中，并且具有已知的扩散到区域淋巴结的倾向。尽管有后一种发现，但活检部位复发或扩散到淋巴结盆地以外是异常罕见的。尽管PEM的分子基础仍在继续表征，但迄今为止的研究结果表明，这一类黑色素细胞肿瘤具有不同于普通痣、发育不良痣、Spitz痣的遗传改变。和黑色素瘤。在此，我们对一例发生在一名年轻非裔美国女孩头皮上的PEM进行了深入的临床、组织病理学和分子分析，发现其具有新的NTRK3-SCAPER基因融合。
METHODS::Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome (BRBNS) is an extremely rare venous malformation that often manifests as multiple haemangioma-like lesions in the skin and gastrointestinal tract. The drug sirolimus plays a key role in the signalling pathway of angiogenesis and subsequent development of BRBNS and its use has been described in several case reports. We present a case series of four patients with BRBNS who exhibited good treatment response to sirolimus. All four patients were administered oral sirolimus at doses of 1.0-1.5 mg/m2 /day with a target drug level of 5-10 ng/mL and median treatment duration of 20 months. All patients had a reduction in the size of the lesions and a normalization of coagulopathy with tolerable drug adverse reactions at follow-up. Sirolimus may be effective and safe in paediatric patients with BRBNS. Further prospective studies are suggested to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of this drug.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with common dermatologic and nondermatologic diseases. Although HPV vaccines are well established as preventive measures for genital warts and cervical neoplasia, their use as therapeutic agents deserves greater attention. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the use of HPV vaccine(s) as a treatment modality for cutaneous and/or mucosal disease. METHODS:A primary literature search using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was conducted in January 2019 by using the PubMed and Cochrane databases. RESULTS:A total of 63 articles with 4439 patients were included. The majority of patients with cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas were successfully treated with HPV vaccination. Preliminary data on patients with pre-existing anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is promising. LIMITATIONS:This review was limited by the lack of controls, patients' previous HPV vaccination status, and publication bias. CONCLUSION:The commercially available three-dose, quadrivalent HPV vaccine is a potential therapeutic option for the treatment of cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas. Noncommercially available HPV vaccines demonstrate therapeutic response for treating anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. The vaccine's efficacy as an adjunct therapy for HPV-associated cutaneous and/or mucosal disease warrants further exploration.
METHODS::Our understanding of melanoma precursors and progression to melanoma has developed as a result of advances in the field of molecular diagnostics. We now better understand the potential for genetic heterogeneity within a single lesion. Combined tumors can pose a diagnostic challenge when deciding the line between benign and malignant, which in turn has direct implications for patient management. Primary cilia (PC) are ubiquitous sensory organelles that have essential functions in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and development. The ciliation index (percentage of ciliated melanocytes) has been shown to reliably differentiate melanoma, which fail to ciliate, from melanocytic nevi, which retain PC. We therefore analyzed the potential for using the ciliation index to differentiate benign and malignant components in combined melanocytic lesions. We collected patient samples (n = 10) of unequivocal combined lesions with both melanoma and associated nevus components. Melanocytes were highlighted with SOX10 and costained with gamma-Tubulin and acetylated alpha-Tubulin to highlight the basal body and cilium, respectively. The number of melanocytes retaining cilia under high-power microscopy was examined. The melanoma component had average of 4% ciliation (SD: 7%), whereas the associated nevus component was significantly higher with 59% ciliation (SD: 17%). These data show that PC may be a reliable means of distinguishing benign from malignant components within a single tumor. The ciliation index may be a helpful tool in distinguishing challenging cases of combined lesions of melanoma in situ with a dermal nevus component from invasive melanoma, thus promoting improved staging and clinical management.