The Landmark Series: Randomized Trials Examining Surgical Margins for Cutaneous Melanoma.
- 作者列表："Angeles CV","Wong SL","Karakousis G
:Between 1980 and 2004, six randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) have been performed to evaluate the width of surgical margin excision for primary cutaneous melanoma and its influence on recurrence and survival. These trials have led to the current recommendation of not more than a 2-cm margin excision and have allowed reduced morbidity of surgery for primary melanoma. Long-term follow-up data has been published which has led to impactful knowledge of the natural history of this disease, yet controversy remains for 1- to 2-mm thickness melanomas. Interpretation of these trials must be done in light of them enrolling patients before the use of sentinel node biopsy and contemporary immunotherapy regimens. These RCTs as well as a contemporary, actively enrolling trial are summarized and discussed in this review.
: 在 1980-2004 之间，已经进行了 6 项随机对照试验 (rct) 来评价手术切缘切除治疗原发性皮肤黑色素瘤的宽度及其对复发和生存的影响。这些试验导致了目前不超过 2 cm边缘切除的推荐，并允许降低原发性黑色素瘤手术的发病率。长期随访数据已经发表，这导致了对这种疾病自然史的深入了解，但对于 1-2mm厚度的黑色素瘤仍存在争议。这些试验的解释必须根据他们在使用前哨淋巴结活检和当代免疫治疗方案之前招募患者进行。这些rct以及当代的、积极参与的试验在本综述中进行了总结和讨论。
METHODS::Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome (BRBNS) is an extremely rare venous malformation that often manifests as multiple haemangioma-like lesions in the skin and gastrointestinal tract. The drug sirolimus plays a key role in the signalling pathway of angiogenesis and subsequent development of BRBNS and its use has been described in several case reports. We present a case series of four patients with BRBNS who exhibited good treatment response to sirolimus. All four patients were administered oral sirolimus at doses of 1.0-1.5 mg/m2 /day with a target drug level of 5-10 ng/mL and median treatment duration of 20 months. All patients had a reduction in the size of the lesions and a normalization of coagulopathy with tolerable drug adverse reactions at follow-up. Sirolimus may be effective and safe in paediatric patients with BRBNS. Further prospective studies are suggested to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of this drug.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with common dermatologic and nondermatologic diseases. Although HPV vaccines are well established as preventive measures for genital warts and cervical neoplasia, their use as therapeutic agents deserves greater attention. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the use of HPV vaccine(s) as a treatment modality for cutaneous and/or mucosal disease. METHODS:A primary literature search using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was conducted in January 2019 by using the PubMed and Cochrane databases. RESULTS:A total of 63 articles with 4439 patients were included. The majority of patients with cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas were successfully treated with HPV vaccination. Preliminary data on patients with pre-existing anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is promising. LIMITATIONS:This review was limited by the lack of controls, patients' previous HPV vaccination status, and publication bias. CONCLUSION:The commercially available three-dose, quadrivalent HPV vaccine is a potential therapeutic option for the treatment of cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas. Noncommercially available HPV vaccines demonstrate therapeutic response for treating anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. The vaccine's efficacy as an adjunct therapy for HPV-associated cutaneous and/or mucosal disease warrants further exploration.
METHODS::Our understanding of melanoma precursors and progression to melanoma has developed as a result of advances in the field of molecular diagnostics. We now better understand the potential for genetic heterogeneity within a single lesion. Combined tumors can pose a diagnostic challenge when deciding the line between benign and malignant, which in turn has direct implications for patient management. Primary cilia (PC) are ubiquitous sensory organelles that have essential functions in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and development. The ciliation index (percentage of ciliated melanocytes) has been shown to reliably differentiate melanoma, which fail to ciliate, from melanocytic nevi, which retain PC. We therefore analyzed the potential for using the ciliation index to differentiate benign and malignant components in combined melanocytic lesions. We collected patient samples (n = 10) of unequivocal combined lesions with both melanoma and associated nevus components. Melanocytes were highlighted with SOX10 and costained with gamma-Tubulin and acetylated alpha-Tubulin to highlight the basal body and cilium, respectively. The number of melanocytes retaining cilia under high-power microscopy was examined. The melanoma component had average of 4% ciliation (SD: 7%), whereas the associated nevus component was significantly higher with 59% ciliation (SD: 17%). These data show that PC may be a reliable means of distinguishing benign from malignant components within a single tumor. The ciliation index may be a helpful tool in distinguishing challenging cases of combined lesions of melanoma in situ with a dermal nevus component from invasive melanoma, thus promoting improved staging and clinical management.