Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer.
- 作者列表："Hansen AW","Chayed Z","Pallesen K","Codruta Vasilescu I","Bygum A
:Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer is a genodermatosis with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. It is a tumour predisposition syndrome characterized by cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas, and increased susceptibility to develop renal cell carcinoma. There are 200-300 families with hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma reported worldwide, but the syndrome is believed to be underdiagnosed. Cutaneous leiomyomas are small smooth muscle tumours that tend to grow over time. Larger lesions, in particular, can cause pain or itching. Uterine leiomyomas have a high penetrance in women with hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer. They frequently cause symptoms, and surgical intervention is often necessary. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer-associated renal cell carcinomas have a high potential to metastasize. Patients are diagnosed by genetic testing if a pathogenic mutation is demonstrated in the gene encoding fumarate hydratase. Immunohistochemistry may be a useful diagnostic approach in patients without a detectable pathogenic mutation. Diagnosed patients should be monitored for renal tumours in a lifelong surveillance programme.
: 遗传性平滑肌瘤病和肾细胞癌是一种遗传性皮肤病，具有常染色体显性遗传模式。它是一种肿瘤易感性综合征，以皮肤和子宫平滑肌瘤为特征，并增加了发展为肾细胞癌的易感性。全球有 200-300 个遗传性平滑肌瘤病和肾细胞癌的家系报道，但该综合征被认为诊断不足。皮肤平滑肌瘤是小的平滑肌肿瘤，往往随着时间的推移而生长。尤其是较大的病变，可引起疼痛或瘙痒。子宫平滑肌瘤在遗传性平滑肌瘤病和肾细胞癌的妇女中具有很高的penetr率。他们经常引起症状，手术干预往往是必要的。遗传性平滑肌瘤病和肾细胞癌相关的肾细胞癌具有很高的转移潜力。如果编码富马酸水合酶的基因出现致病性突变，则通过基因检测诊断患者。免疫组化可能是一种有用的诊断方法在患者没有检测到致病突变。诊断的患者应在终身监测方案中监测肾肿瘤。
METHODS::Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome (BRBNS) is an extremely rare venous malformation that often manifests as multiple haemangioma-like lesions in the skin and gastrointestinal tract. The drug sirolimus plays a key role in the signalling pathway of angiogenesis and subsequent development of BRBNS and its use has been described in several case reports. We present a case series of four patients with BRBNS who exhibited good treatment response to sirolimus. All four patients were administered oral sirolimus at doses of 1.0-1.5 mg/m2 /day with a target drug level of 5-10 ng/mL and median treatment duration of 20 months. All patients had a reduction in the size of the lesions and a normalization of coagulopathy with tolerable drug adverse reactions at follow-up. Sirolimus may be effective and safe in paediatric patients with BRBNS. Further prospective studies are suggested to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of this drug.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with common dermatologic and nondermatologic diseases. Although HPV vaccines are well established as preventive measures for genital warts and cervical neoplasia, their use as therapeutic agents deserves greater attention. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the use of HPV vaccine(s) as a treatment modality for cutaneous and/or mucosal disease. METHODS:A primary literature search using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was conducted in January 2019 by using the PubMed and Cochrane databases. RESULTS:A total of 63 articles with 4439 patients were included. The majority of patients with cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas were successfully treated with HPV vaccination. Preliminary data on patients with pre-existing anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is promising. LIMITATIONS:This review was limited by the lack of controls, patients' previous HPV vaccination status, and publication bias. CONCLUSION:The commercially available three-dose, quadrivalent HPV vaccine is a potential therapeutic option for the treatment of cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas. Noncommercially available HPV vaccines demonstrate therapeutic response for treating anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. The vaccine's efficacy as an adjunct therapy for HPV-associated cutaneous and/or mucosal disease warrants further exploration.
METHODS::Our understanding of melanoma precursors and progression to melanoma has developed as a result of advances in the field of molecular diagnostics. We now better understand the potential for genetic heterogeneity within a single lesion. Combined tumors can pose a diagnostic challenge when deciding the line between benign and malignant, which in turn has direct implications for patient management. Primary cilia (PC) are ubiquitous sensory organelles that have essential functions in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and development. The ciliation index (percentage of ciliated melanocytes) has been shown to reliably differentiate melanoma, which fail to ciliate, from melanocytic nevi, which retain PC. We therefore analyzed the potential for using the ciliation index to differentiate benign and malignant components in combined melanocytic lesions. We collected patient samples (n = 10) of unequivocal combined lesions with both melanoma and associated nevus components. Melanocytes were highlighted with SOX10 and costained with gamma-Tubulin and acetylated alpha-Tubulin to highlight the basal body and cilium, respectively. The number of melanocytes retaining cilia under high-power microscopy was examined. The melanoma component had average of 4% ciliation (SD: 7%), whereas the associated nevus component was significantly higher with 59% ciliation (SD: 17%). These data show that PC may be a reliable means of distinguishing benign from malignant components within a single tumor. The ciliation index may be a helpful tool in distinguishing challenging cases of combined lesions of melanoma in situ with a dermal nevus component from invasive melanoma, thus promoting improved staging and clinical management.