Early-stage Mycosis Fungoides: Epidemiology and Prognosis.
- 作者列表："Maguire A","Puelles J","Raboisson P","Chavda R","Gabriel S","Thornton S
:Most patients with mycosis fungoides are diagnosed with early-stage disease. However, prevalence of early-stage disease is unknown, and evidence of its burden is scarce. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of early-stage mycosis fungoides, how long patients live with early-stage disease and to characterise these patients. Data were obtained from 4 key publications and from US cancer registries (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program; SEER). The derived incidence of early-stage mycosis fungoides was 0.26/100,000 (UK), 0.29/100,000 (US) and 0.38/100,000 (US-SEER) and the prevalence was 4.8/100,000 (UK), 5.2/100,000 (US) and 6.6/100,000 (US-SEER). Early-stage disease may last for 18 years. From SEER registries, 3,132 were diagnosed at early stage (mostly stage IA). Median age at diagnosis was 58 years. Compared with stage IA, the relative risk of death was 1.3 for stage IB and 3.5 for stage IIA. We confirm the rarity of early-stage mycosis fungoides, a differential prognosis and the potential for elevated burden of disease.
: 大多数蕈样肉芽肿患者被诊断为早期疾病。然而，早期疾病的患病率尚不清楚，其负担的证据也很少。本研究的目的是估计早期蕈样肉芽肿的患病率，早期疾病患者的生存时间以及这些患者的特征。数据来自 4 个关键出版物和美国癌症登记处 (监测流行病学学和最终结果项目; SEER)。早期蕈样肉芽肿的衍生发病率为 0.26/100,000 (英国) 、 0.29/100,000 (美国) 和 0.38/100,000 (美国-SEER) 患病率分别为 4.8/100,000 (英国) 、 5.2/100,000 (美国) 和 6.6/100,000 (美国-SEER)。早期疾病可能持续 18 年。来自SEER登记处，3,132 的患者在早期诊断 (大部分为IA期)。诊断时的中位年龄为 58 岁。与IA期相比，IB期的相对死亡风险为 1.3，IIA期的相对死亡风险为 3.5。我们证实了早期蕈样肉芽肿的罕见性、不同的预后和疾病负担升高的可能性。
METHODS::Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome (BRBNS) is an extremely rare venous malformation that often manifests as multiple haemangioma-like lesions in the skin and gastrointestinal tract. The drug sirolimus plays a key role in the signalling pathway of angiogenesis and subsequent development of BRBNS and its use has been described in several case reports. We present a case series of four patients with BRBNS who exhibited good treatment response to sirolimus. All four patients were administered oral sirolimus at doses of 1.0-1.5 mg/m2 /day with a target drug level of 5-10 ng/mL and median treatment duration of 20 months. All patients had a reduction in the size of the lesions and a normalization of coagulopathy with tolerable drug adverse reactions at follow-up. Sirolimus may be effective and safe in paediatric patients with BRBNS. Further prospective studies are suggested to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of this drug.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with common dermatologic and nondermatologic diseases. Although HPV vaccines are well established as preventive measures for genital warts and cervical neoplasia, their use as therapeutic agents deserves greater attention. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the use of HPV vaccine(s) as a treatment modality for cutaneous and/or mucosal disease. METHODS:A primary literature search using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was conducted in January 2019 by using the PubMed and Cochrane databases. RESULTS:A total of 63 articles with 4439 patients were included. The majority of patients with cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas were successfully treated with HPV vaccination. Preliminary data on patients with pre-existing anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is promising. LIMITATIONS:This review was limited by the lack of controls, patients' previous HPV vaccination status, and publication bias. CONCLUSION:The commercially available three-dose, quadrivalent HPV vaccine is a potential therapeutic option for the treatment of cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas. Noncommercially available HPV vaccines demonstrate therapeutic response for treating anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. The vaccine's efficacy as an adjunct therapy for HPV-associated cutaneous and/or mucosal disease warrants further exploration.
METHODS::Our understanding of melanoma precursors and progression to melanoma has developed as a result of advances in the field of molecular diagnostics. We now better understand the potential for genetic heterogeneity within a single lesion. Combined tumors can pose a diagnostic challenge when deciding the line between benign and malignant, which in turn has direct implications for patient management. Primary cilia (PC) are ubiquitous sensory organelles that have essential functions in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and development. The ciliation index (percentage of ciliated melanocytes) has been shown to reliably differentiate melanoma, which fail to ciliate, from melanocytic nevi, which retain PC. We therefore analyzed the potential for using the ciliation index to differentiate benign and malignant components in combined melanocytic lesions. We collected patient samples (n = 10) of unequivocal combined lesions with both melanoma and associated nevus components. Melanocytes were highlighted with SOX10 and costained with gamma-Tubulin and acetylated alpha-Tubulin to highlight the basal body and cilium, respectively. The number of melanocytes retaining cilia under high-power microscopy was examined. The melanoma component had average of 4% ciliation (SD: 7%), whereas the associated nevus component was significantly higher with 59% ciliation (SD: 17%). These data show that PC may be a reliable means of distinguishing benign from malignant components within a single tumor. The ciliation index may be a helpful tool in distinguishing challenging cases of combined lesions of melanoma in situ with a dermal nevus component from invasive melanoma, thus promoting improved staging and clinical management.