The clinico-pathological spectrum of primary cutaneous lymphoma other than mycosis fungoides/Sezary syndrome.
- 作者列表："Oschlies I","King RL","Dotlic S","Montes-Moreno S","Ponzoni M","Traverse-Glehen A","Calaminici M","Ferry JA","Ott G","Goodlad JR
:The major aim of Session 1 of the 2018 European Association of Hematopathology/Society for Hematopathology Workshop was to collect examples of cutaneous lymphomas, excluding mycosis fungoides/Sezary syndrome, as defined in the current WHO classification of tumours of the haemetopoietic and lymphoid tissues. Overall 42 cases were submitted. These were considered in four main categories: primary cutaneous B cell lymphomas (12 cases), primary cutaneous T cell lymphomas/lymphoproliferations with CD8+/cytotoxic phenotype (12 cases), primary cutaneous CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders (15 cases) and primary cutaneous T cell lymphomas/leukaemias with CD4+ phenotype (4 cases). Using these cases as examples, we were able to present the full spectrum of cutaneous lymphoproliferations (excluding mycosis fungoides/Sezary syndrome), including examples of rare, provisional and new entities as listed in the 2017 update of the WHO classification. The findings are summarized in this report with emphasis on differential diagnostic considerations and the importance of clinico-pathological correlation for final subtyping. In presenting these findings we hope to raise awareness of this enigmatic group of neoplasms and to further our understanding of these rare disease entities.
: 2018 欧洲血液病理学协会/血液病理学会研讨会第一场会议的主要目的是收集皮肤淋巴瘤的例子，不包括蕈样肉芽肿/Sezary综合征，根据目前WHO造血和淋巴组织肿瘤分类中的定义。总共提交了 42 起案件。这些被认为是四个主要类别: 原发性皮肤b细胞淋巴瘤 (12 例)，原发性皮肤T细胞淋巴瘤/淋巴细胞增殖伴CD8 +/细胞毒性表型 (12 例)，原发性皮肤CD30-positive淋巴组织增生性疾病 (15 例) 和CD4 + 表型的原发性皮肤T细胞淋巴瘤/白血病 (4 例)。以这些病例为例，我们能够呈现皮肤淋巴增生的全谱 (不包括蕈样肉芽肿/Sezary综合征)，包括罕见的例子，世卫组织分类 2017 更新中列出的临时实体和新实体。本报告总结了这些发现，重点是鉴别诊断考虑和临床-病理相关性对最终亚分型的重要性。在介绍这些发现时，我们希望提高对这组神秘肿瘤的认识，并进一步了解这些罕见疾病实体。
METHODS::Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome (BRBNS) is an extremely rare venous malformation that often manifests as multiple haemangioma-like lesions in the skin and gastrointestinal tract. The drug sirolimus plays a key role in the signalling pathway of angiogenesis and subsequent development of BRBNS and its use has been described in several case reports. We present a case series of four patients with BRBNS who exhibited good treatment response to sirolimus. All four patients were administered oral sirolimus at doses of 1.0-1.5 mg/m2 /day with a target drug level of 5-10 ng/mL and median treatment duration of 20 months. All patients had a reduction in the size of the lesions and a normalization of coagulopathy with tolerable drug adverse reactions at follow-up. Sirolimus may be effective and safe in paediatric patients with BRBNS. Further prospective studies are suggested to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of this drug.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with common dermatologic and nondermatologic diseases. Although HPV vaccines are well established as preventive measures for genital warts and cervical neoplasia, their use as therapeutic agents deserves greater attention. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the use of HPV vaccine(s) as a treatment modality for cutaneous and/or mucosal disease. METHODS:A primary literature search using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was conducted in January 2019 by using the PubMed and Cochrane databases. RESULTS:A total of 63 articles with 4439 patients were included. The majority of patients with cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas were successfully treated with HPV vaccination. Preliminary data on patients with pre-existing anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is promising. LIMITATIONS:This review was limited by the lack of controls, patients' previous HPV vaccination status, and publication bias. CONCLUSION:The commercially available three-dose, quadrivalent HPV vaccine is a potential therapeutic option for the treatment of cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas. Noncommercially available HPV vaccines demonstrate therapeutic response for treating anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. The vaccine's efficacy as an adjunct therapy for HPV-associated cutaneous and/or mucosal disease warrants further exploration.
METHODS::Our understanding of melanoma precursors and progression to melanoma has developed as a result of advances in the field of molecular diagnostics. We now better understand the potential for genetic heterogeneity within a single lesion. Combined tumors can pose a diagnostic challenge when deciding the line between benign and malignant, which in turn has direct implications for patient management. Primary cilia (PC) are ubiquitous sensory organelles that have essential functions in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and development. The ciliation index (percentage of ciliated melanocytes) has been shown to reliably differentiate melanoma, which fail to ciliate, from melanocytic nevi, which retain PC. We therefore analyzed the potential for using the ciliation index to differentiate benign and malignant components in combined melanocytic lesions. We collected patient samples (n = 10) of unequivocal combined lesions with both melanoma and associated nevus components. Melanocytes were highlighted with SOX10 and costained with gamma-Tubulin and acetylated alpha-Tubulin to highlight the basal body and cilium, respectively. The number of melanocytes retaining cilia under high-power microscopy was examined. The melanoma component had average of 4% ciliation (SD: 7%), whereas the associated nevus component was significantly higher with 59% ciliation (SD: 17%). These data show that PC may be a reliable means of distinguishing benign from malignant components within a single tumor. The ciliation index may be a helpful tool in distinguishing challenging cases of combined lesions of melanoma in situ with a dermal nevus component from invasive melanoma, thus promoting improved staging and clinical management.