- 作者列表："Wages NA","Slingluff CL Jr","Bullock TN","Petroni GR
INTRODUCTION:In contemporary oncology drug development, implementation of novel early-phase designs with the ability to address multiple research objectives is needed to better refine regimens. This paper describes an adaptive design strategy for identifying a range of optimal regimens based on two endpoints within multiple cohorts. The proposed design was developed to address objectives in an early-phase trial of cancer vaccines in combination with agonistic antibodies to CD40 and CD27. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We describe a model-based design strategy that was developed for a trial evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of vaccination with (1) peptides plus CD40 antibody and TLR3 ligand, (2) systemic administration of an agonistic CD27 antibody, and (3) to assess immune response from (1) and (2) compared to optimal controls in participants with stage IIB-IV melanoma. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:The proposed design is a practical adaptive method for use with combined immunotherapy regimens with multiple objectives within multiple cohorts of interest. Further advances in the effectiveness of cancer immunotherapies will require new approaches that include redefining optimal strategies to take multiple regimens forward into later phases, incorporating additional endpoints in the dose selection process and testing drug combination therapies to improve efficacy and reduce toxicity. Our goal is to facilitate the acceptance and application of more novel designs in contemporary early development trials.
引言: 在当代肿瘤药物开发中，需要实施能够解决多个研究目标的新型早期设计，以更好地完善方案。本文描述了一种自适应设计策略，用于基于多个队列内的两个终点确定一系列最佳方案。提出的设计是为了解决癌症疫苗联合CD40 和cd27 激动性抗体的早期试验的目标。 材料和方法: 我们描述了一种基于模型的设计策略，该策略是为评价 (1) 肽加CD40 抗体和TLR 3 配体疫苗接种的安全性和免疫原性而开发的。(2) 全身给予激动性CD 2 7 抗体，以及 (3) 评估 (1) 和 (2) 的免疫反应与IIB-IV期黑色素瘤参与者的最佳对照相比。 结果与结论: 所提出的设计是一种实用的适应性方法，可用于多个感兴趣的队列内具有多个目标的联合免疫治疗方案。癌症免疫疗法有效性的进一步进展将需要新的方法，包括重新定义最佳策略，将多个方案推进到后期阶段，在剂量选择过程中纳入额外终点，并测试药物联合治疗，以提高疗效和降低毒性。我们的目标是促进更多新颖设计在当代早期开发试验中的接受和应用。
METHODS::Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome (BRBNS) is an extremely rare venous malformation that often manifests as multiple haemangioma-like lesions in the skin and gastrointestinal tract. The drug sirolimus plays a key role in the signalling pathway of angiogenesis and subsequent development of BRBNS and its use has been described in several case reports. We present a case series of four patients with BRBNS who exhibited good treatment response to sirolimus. All four patients were administered oral sirolimus at doses of 1.0-1.5 mg/m2 /day with a target drug level of 5-10 ng/mL and median treatment duration of 20 months. All patients had a reduction in the size of the lesions and a normalization of coagulopathy with tolerable drug adverse reactions at follow-up. Sirolimus may be effective and safe in paediatric patients with BRBNS. Further prospective studies are suggested to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of this drug.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with common dermatologic and nondermatologic diseases. Although HPV vaccines are well established as preventive measures for genital warts and cervical neoplasia, their use as therapeutic agents deserves greater attention. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the use of HPV vaccine(s) as a treatment modality for cutaneous and/or mucosal disease. METHODS:A primary literature search using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was conducted in January 2019 by using the PubMed and Cochrane databases. RESULTS:A total of 63 articles with 4439 patients were included. The majority of patients with cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas were successfully treated with HPV vaccination. Preliminary data on patients with pre-existing anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is promising. LIMITATIONS:This review was limited by the lack of controls, patients' previous HPV vaccination status, and publication bias. CONCLUSION:The commercially available three-dose, quadrivalent HPV vaccine is a potential therapeutic option for the treatment of cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas. Noncommercially available HPV vaccines demonstrate therapeutic response for treating anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. The vaccine's efficacy as an adjunct therapy for HPV-associated cutaneous and/or mucosal disease warrants further exploration.
METHODS::Our understanding of melanoma precursors and progression to melanoma has developed as a result of advances in the field of molecular diagnostics. We now better understand the potential for genetic heterogeneity within a single lesion. Combined tumors can pose a diagnostic challenge when deciding the line between benign and malignant, which in turn has direct implications for patient management. Primary cilia (PC) are ubiquitous sensory organelles that have essential functions in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and development. The ciliation index (percentage of ciliated melanocytes) has been shown to reliably differentiate melanoma, which fail to ciliate, from melanocytic nevi, which retain PC. We therefore analyzed the potential for using the ciliation index to differentiate benign and malignant components in combined melanocytic lesions. We collected patient samples (n = 10) of unequivocal combined lesions with both melanoma and associated nevus components. Melanocytes were highlighted with SOX10 and costained with gamma-Tubulin and acetylated alpha-Tubulin to highlight the basal body and cilium, respectively. The number of melanocytes retaining cilia under high-power microscopy was examined. The melanoma component had average of 4% ciliation (SD: 7%), whereas the associated nevus component was significantly higher with 59% ciliation (SD: 17%). These data show that PC may be a reliable means of distinguishing benign from malignant components within a single tumor. The ciliation index may be a helpful tool in distinguishing challenging cases of combined lesions of melanoma in situ with a dermal nevus component from invasive melanoma, thus promoting improved staging and clinical management.