FBXW7-mediated stability regulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 in melanoma formation.
FBXW7-mediated黑色素瘤形成中信号转导子和转录激活子 2 的稳定性调控.
- 作者列表："Lee CJ","An HJ","Kim SM","Yoo SM","Park J","Lee GE","Kim WY","Kim DJ","Kang HC","Lee JY","Lee HS","Cho SJ","Cho YY
:In this study, we provide critical evidence that STAT2 stability regulation plays an essential role in melanoma cell proliferation and colony growth. We found that the interaction of FBXW7 and STAT2 induced STAT2 destabilization via a ubiquitination-mediated proteasomal degradation pathway. Notably, GSK3β-mediated STAT2 phosphorylation facilitated STAT2-FBXW7 interactions via the DNA binding domain of STAT2 and domains 1, 2, 6, and 7 of FBXW7 WD40. Importantly, the inverse correlation between protein levels of STAT2 and FBXW7 were observed not only in human melanoma cells but also in a human skin cancer tissue array. The relationship between protein levels of STAT2 and FBXW7, cell proliferation, and colony growth were similarly observed in the melanoma cell lines SK-MEL-2, -5, and -28. Moreover, STAT2 knockdown in melanoma cells suppressed melanoma cell proliferation and colony formation. These data demonstrated that FBXW7-mediated STAT2 stability regulation plays an essential role in melanoma cell proliferation and cancer growth.
: 在这项研究中，我们提供了重要的证据表明STAT2 稳定性调控在黑色素瘤细胞增殖和集落生长中起着至关重要的作用。我们发现FBXW7 和STAT2 的相互作用通过泛素化介导的蛋白酶体降解途径诱导STAT2 失稳。值得注意的是，gsk3 β 介导的STAT2 磷酸化通过STAT2 的DNA结合域和FBXW7 wd40 的结构域 1 、 2 、 6 和 7 促进了STAT2-FBXW7 相互作用。重要的是，不仅在人黑色素瘤细胞中，而且在人皮肤癌组织阵列中观察到STAT2 和FBXW7 的蛋白水平之间的负相关。在黑色素瘤细胞系SK-MEL-2 、-5 和-28 中观察到STAT2 和FBXW7 的蛋白水平、细胞增殖和集落生长之间的关系。此外，黑色素瘤细胞中STAT2 敲除抑制黑色素瘤细胞增殖和集落形成。这些数据表明，FBXW7-mediated STAT2 稳定调节在黑色素瘤细胞增殖和癌症生长中起着至关重要的作用。
METHODS::Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome (BRBNS) is an extremely rare venous malformation that often manifests as multiple haemangioma-like lesions in the skin and gastrointestinal tract. The drug sirolimus plays a key role in the signalling pathway of angiogenesis and subsequent development of BRBNS and its use has been described in several case reports. We present a case series of four patients with BRBNS who exhibited good treatment response to sirolimus. All four patients were administered oral sirolimus at doses of 1.0-1.5 mg/m2 /day with a target drug level of 5-10 ng/mL and median treatment duration of 20 months. All patients had a reduction in the size of the lesions and a normalization of coagulopathy with tolerable drug adverse reactions at follow-up. Sirolimus may be effective and safe in paediatric patients with BRBNS. Further prospective studies are suggested to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of this drug.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with common dermatologic and nondermatologic diseases. Although HPV vaccines are well established as preventive measures for genital warts and cervical neoplasia, their use as therapeutic agents deserves greater attention. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the use of HPV vaccine(s) as a treatment modality for cutaneous and/or mucosal disease. METHODS:A primary literature search using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was conducted in January 2019 by using the PubMed and Cochrane databases. RESULTS:A total of 63 articles with 4439 patients were included. The majority of patients with cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas were successfully treated with HPV vaccination. Preliminary data on patients with pre-existing anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is promising. LIMITATIONS:This review was limited by the lack of controls, patients' previous HPV vaccination status, and publication bias. CONCLUSION:The commercially available three-dose, quadrivalent HPV vaccine is a potential therapeutic option for the treatment of cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas. Noncommercially available HPV vaccines demonstrate therapeutic response for treating anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. The vaccine's efficacy as an adjunct therapy for HPV-associated cutaneous and/or mucosal disease warrants further exploration.
METHODS::Our understanding of melanoma precursors and progression to melanoma has developed as a result of advances in the field of molecular diagnostics. We now better understand the potential for genetic heterogeneity within a single lesion. Combined tumors can pose a diagnostic challenge when deciding the line between benign and malignant, which in turn has direct implications for patient management. Primary cilia (PC) are ubiquitous sensory organelles that have essential functions in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and development. The ciliation index (percentage of ciliated melanocytes) has been shown to reliably differentiate melanoma, which fail to ciliate, from melanocytic nevi, which retain PC. We therefore analyzed the potential for using the ciliation index to differentiate benign and malignant components in combined melanocytic lesions. We collected patient samples (n = 10) of unequivocal combined lesions with both melanoma and associated nevus components. Melanocytes were highlighted with SOX10 and costained with gamma-Tubulin and acetylated alpha-Tubulin to highlight the basal body and cilium, respectively. The number of melanocytes retaining cilia under high-power microscopy was examined. The melanoma component had average of 4% ciliation (SD: 7%), whereas the associated nevus component was significantly higher with 59% ciliation (SD: 17%). These data show that PC may be a reliable means of distinguishing benign from malignant components within a single tumor. The ciliation index may be a helpful tool in distinguishing challenging cases of combined lesions of melanoma in situ with a dermal nevus component from invasive melanoma, thus promoting improved staging and clinical management.